Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus


We examined these questions by recording from synaptically coupled pairs of cartwheel cells, neurons which fire complex spikes and form an inhibitory network in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus.  

Principal cells (type IV units) in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) are uniquely sensitive to (are inhibited by) energy minima or notches in acoustic spectra, which provide cues to sound localization.  

In the cochlear nucleus of this knockout, 5-HT-IR cell bodies were observed in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN), a primary relay to the inferior colliculus (IC).  

The Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus in the auditory brainstem of mammals is reviewed and new data are presented that characterize the responses of neurons in this structure in the mouse.  

Age-related functional changes associated with glycine neurotransmission in Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) include altered intensity and temporal coding by DCN projection neurons.  

Cochlear damage can change the spontaneous firing rates of neurons in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN).  

Inhibitory glycinergic circuits provide input onto Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) projection neurons which likely serve to modulate excitatory responses to time-varying complex acoustic signals.  

Projections from the dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei appear to overlap almost completely, although those from the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus may be slightly more widespread at the boundaries of the central nucleus.  

In most mammals the cochlear nuclear complex (CN) contains a distributed system of granule cells (GCS), whose parallel fiber axons innervate the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN).  

Our method allowed us to identify neurons of the facial nucleus and the supratrigeminal nucleus, as well as assessing cellular distribution within layers of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus. With this method, we also have been able to directly compare morphological characteristics of neuronal somata at the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus when labeled with cresyl violet with those obtained with the Golgi method, and we found that cresyl violet-labeled cell bodies appear smaller at high cellular densities.  

In nonprimate mammals, the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) is thought to play a role in the orientation of the head toward sounds of interest by integrating acoustic and somatosensory information.  

Kl├╝ver-Barrera and neuronal nuclei (NeuN) staining showed a decrease in neuronal density in the ventral cochlear nucleus, but not in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus.  

The mammalian Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) is considered to contribute to the localization of the sound sources.  

Multisensory neurons in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) achieve their bimodal response properties [ Shore (2005) Eur.  

The effects of somatosensory electrical stimulation on the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) activity of control and tone-exposed hamsters were investigated.  

Our recent study has shown that somatosensory electrical stimulation may be useful to modulate sound-induced hyperactivity in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN), a neural correlate of certain forms of tinnitus.  

The mammalian Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) integrates auditory nerve input with nonauditory signals via a cerebellar-like granule cell circuit.  

Trans-electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) of areas of skin close to the ear increases the activation of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus through the somatosensory pathway and may augment the inhibitory role of this nucleus on the CNS and thereby ameliorate tinnitus.  

Single unit and evoked potential recordings in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus indicate that these pathways are physiologically active.  

We evaluated two nuclei, the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) and the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), which project in two distinct auditory pathways.  

Neurons in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) exhibit nonlinearities in spectral processing, which make it difficult to predict the neurons' responses to stimuli.  

Following spectrally and temporally precisely defined unilateral electrical intracochlear stimulation (EIS) that corresponded in strength to physiological acoustic stimuli and lasted for 2 h under anesthesia, we characterized those neuronal cell types in ventral (VCN) and Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN), lateral superior olive (LSO) and central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CIC) of the rat brain that expressed IEGs.  

Changes in IGF-1 and synaptophysin immunostaining were assessed in the anteroventral (AVCN), posteroventral (PVCN) and Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) at 1, 20 and 90 days after deafferentation.  

Neurons in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) exhibit strong nonlinearities in spectral processing.  

Cell bodies in the ipsilateral Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus bordering the cochlear aqueduct (CA) showed a lateral to medial gradient of gentamicin staining, suggesting the CA as a potential site of transfer of gentamicin to the contralateral ear.  

The Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) is an initial site of central auditory processing and also the first site of multisensory convergence in the auditory pathway.  

Despite preserved cell differentiation, the Reln(rl-Orl) phenotype comprises laminar abnormalities of cell position in auditory cortex and Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus. CO activity increased in the granular cell layer of Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus, trapezoid body nucleus, intermediate lateral lemniscus, central and external inferior colliculus, and pyramidal cell layer of primary auditory cortex. On the contrary, CO activity decreased in the superficial molecular layer of Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus as well as in the medioventral periolivary nucleus.  

Additionally, the distal part of the central auditory pathway (Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus, superior olivary complex) was found to be labeled with the Cy3-linked silica nanoparticles, indicating a retrograde axonal transport.  

Many studies of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) have focused on the representation of acoustic stimuli in terms of average firing rate.  

Synaptic plasticity in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) follows Hebbian and anti-Hebbian patterns in a cell-specific manner.  

Following salicylate injections that induced the behavioural manifestations of tinnitus, the number of principal neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus expressing CB1 receptors significantly decreased, while the number of CB1-positive principal neurons in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus did not change significantly.  

Axonal projections from the lateral superior olivary nuclei (LSO), as well as from the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) and dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL), converge in frequency-ordered layers in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC) where they distribute among different synaptic compartments.  

Cartwheel cells are glycinergic interneurons that modify somatosensory input to the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus. To understand what ion channels determine the generation of these two types of spike waveforms, we recorded from cartwheel cells using the gramicidin perforated-patch technique in brain slices of mouse Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus and applied channel-selective blockers.  

The remodeling process of tonotopic receptive fields within auditory pathway structures (Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus, inferior colliculus, and the auditory cortex) are late manifestations of neural plasticity.  

A computational model of the neural circuitry of the gerbil Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN), based on the MacGregor's neuromime model, was used to simulate type III unit (P-cell) responses to notch noise stimuli.  

Evidence has accumulated in the last decade that the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) may be an important site in the etiology of tinnitus.  

Many neurones showed no evidence of input from the contralateral ear (n = 41) but other neurones from both ventral and Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus showed clear evidence of contralateral inhibitory input (n = 61). A few neurones (n = 8) exhibited responses consistent with excitatory input from the contralateral ear, which was closely aligned with the ipsilateral excitation, and were found exclusively in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus.  

Unipolar brush cells (UBCs) are glutamatergic interneurons in the cerebellar cortex and Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus. Our results suggest that UBCs arise from the rhombic lip and migrate via novel pathways to their final destinations in the cerebellum and Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus.  

Previous studies in a number of species have demonstrated that spontaneous activity in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) becomes elevated following exposure to intense sound.  

The anterior ventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN), posterior ventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN) and Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) each contain predominant populations of neurons that have been well characterized regarding their morphological and electrophysiological properties.  

This study sought to determine whether maintenance of noise-induced Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) hyperactivity depends on descending projections.  

Granule cells and parallel fiber circuits in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) play a role in integration of multimodal sensory with auditory inputs.  

Neurosci., 22, 10891-10897] has confirmed the presence of a direct pathway from the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) to the medial MGB, bypassing the IC, as previously suggested in the chimpanzee [ (Strominger et al.  

The neurons in the mammalian (gerbil, cat) Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) have responses to tones and noise that have been used to classify them into unit types.  

We report here for the first time that GIRK2 is expressed in unipolar brush cells, which are excitatory interneurons of the vestibulocerebellum and Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus. We hypothesize that GIRK2 overexpression will adversely affect cerebellar circuitry in Ts65Dn vestibulocerebellum and Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus due to GIRK2 shunting properties and its effects on resting membrane potential..  

This study investigated whether unilateral deafferentation of the presynaptic neuron is key in the control of morphology and the subunit composition and expression of AMPA type glutamate receptors (GluRs) in neurons of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN).  

The fusiform cell and deep layers of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) show neurotransmitter and functional age-related changes suggestive of a downregulation of inhibitory efficacy onto DCN output neurons.  

Recordings from single neurons in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) of unanesthetized (decerebrate) cats were done to characterize the effects of acoustic trauma.  

RESULTS: The Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus is located in the floor of the lateral recess of the fourth ventricle on the posterior surface of the inferior cerebellar peduncle where it produces a prominence, the auditory tubercle. The Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus is positioned so that it would be damaged by a tumor within or approaches to the floor of the lateral recess. The Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus and the adjacent intraventricular part of the ventral cochlear nucleus have anatomic characteristics that make them the preferable site of placement for the auditory brain stem implant..  

In this study, we used retrograde labeling techniques in rats to identify multipolar neurons that project their axons to the ipsilateral Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN), the contralateral CN, or both structures.  

A plant lectin, Wisteria floribunda agglutinin, that recognizes specific carbohydrate residues in the extracellular matrix binds to some cell types in the ventral cochlear nucleus but not to cells in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus.  

The Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) has been modeled in numerous studies as a possible source of tinnitus-generating signals.  

A computational model of the neural circuitry of the gerbil Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN), based on the MacGregor's neuromime model, was used to simulate type III unit (P-cell) responses to notch noise stimuli.  

Enhanced spontaneous activity within the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus has been correlated with loss of outer hair cells in animal experiments using cisplatin. This may result from disinhibition of neurons within the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus caused by reduced input from spiral ganglion cells.  

The Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) consists of many cell types with different morphologies and properties.  

The ICC is an interesting structure in tinnitus research because its diverse inputs include putative generator sites in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus, as well as brainstem sources that appear to remain normal after tinnitus induction.  

In control rats, the strongest binding was found in granular regions, followed in order by fusiform soma, molecular, and deep layers of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN), with much lower binding in the anteroventral CN (AVCN) and posteroventral CN (PVCN).  

Circuits in the adult Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) have been shown to preserve signal in background noise.  

Multisensory integration has been demonstrated in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN), superior colliculus and sensory cortices and may play a role in plasticity that occurs after sensory deprivation..  

Output neurons of Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) were labeled retrogradely by injecting fluorescent microspheres into the inferior colliculus.  

The cytoarchitecture of Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN), characterized by a distinct laminar structure similar to the cerebellar cortex of the normal mouse, is known to be disrupted in the Reelin-deficient mouse, reeler.  

Initial processing of these cues is done in separate brainstem nuclei, with ITDs in the medial superior olive, ILDs in the lateral superior olive, and SNs in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus.  

A growing body of evidence implies that the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) plays an important role in tinnitus.  

We have categorized the various forms of plasticity that characterize tinnitus and searched for their neural underpinnings in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN).  

The results suggest that axons from the ipsilateral or contralateral cortex contact fusiform and giant cells in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus and multipolar cells in the ventral cochlear nucleus that project directly to the inferior colliculus.  

The Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) receives afferent input from the auditory nerve and is thus usually thought of as a monaural nucleus, but it also receives inputs from the contralateral cochlear nucleus as well as descending projections from binaural nuclei.  

The Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) receives auditory input directly via the VIIIth nerve and somatosensory input indirectly from the Vth nerve via granule cells.  

In addition, the number of glycine immunopositive tuberculoventral (vertical or corn) cells in the deep layer of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus also decreased significantly.  

It has been suggested that the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) is involved in the temporal representation of both envelope periodicity and pitch.  

One possible function of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) is discrimination of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), spectral cues used for vertical sound localization.  

The time courses of spontaneous and/or evoked activity were studied in 153 neurons located predominantly in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus in cats anesthetized with Nembutal.  

Their axons gave rise to small (1-3 microm in diameter) en passant swellings and terminal boutons in the GCD and deep layers of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus.  

Two months later, changes in calretinin immunostaining as well as cell size, volume, and synaptophysin immunostaining were assessed in the anteroventral (AVCN), posteroventral (PVCN), and Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN).  

IOs have been reported by researchers in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) of both the cat and the Mongolian gerbil.  

In vitro recordings in rat Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus show that the effects of inhibition on spike timing can long outlast the duration of the inhibitory potential and that this depends only on the membrane voltage change during the inhibitory postsynaptic potential.  

In anaesthetized animals with unilateral electrical stimulation of the cochlear nerve, increased expression of c-Fos was detected in the ipsilateral ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus bilaterally (DCN), in the ipsilateral lateral superior olive (LSO) and in the contralateral inferior colliculus (IC).  

Additional small, labeled boutons were found in all layers of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus, with the majority located in the fusiform cell layer.  

The Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus also forms a feed-forward circuit, which receives cochlear input and projects to the ventral cochlear nucleus by a tuberculo-ventral tract. Biotinylated dextran injections into the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus anterogradely labeled the tuberculo-ventral tract and its endings in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus but also retrogradely filled cochlear nerve fibers and their terminals in the same regions.  

The origin of mossy fibers in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) is multiple, from other auditory or non-auditory nuclei but possibly also from intrinsic neurons.  

We investigated the use of optical imaging for observing the spatial patterns of neural activation in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) of hamsters during tonal stimulation.  

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A bipolar electrode was implanted in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus of bilaterally deafened Sprague-Dawley rats, and electrical stimulation was presented at an intensity four times that of threshold. In the ipsilateral Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus, ipsilateral posterior ventral cochlear nucleus and bilateral inferior colliculus, Fos-like immunoreactive neurons were observed as a distinct banding pattern.  

Most labeled puncta were found in the marginal area of VCN and the fusiform cell layer of Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN).  

Considerable circumstantial evidence suggests that cells in the ventral cochlear nucleus, that respond predominantly to the onset of pure tone bursts, have a stellate morphology and project, among other places, to the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus. The characteristics of such cells make them leading candidates for providing the so-called "wideband inhibitory input" which is an essential part of the processing machinery of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus. Here we use juxtacellular labeling with biocytin to demonstrate directly that large stellate cells, with onset responses, terminate profusely in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus. In addition, some onset cells project to the contralateral Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus..  

The Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) integrates the synaptic information depending on the organization of the excitatory and inhibitory connections.  

Extracellular application of glutamate elicited cytoplasmic Ca2+ transients in freshly dissociated rat neurones of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) (identified as pyramidal cells) with half-maximal concentration of 513 micromol/l while saturating doses (5 mmol/l) of this neurotransmitter caused transients of 46.1 +/- 3.0 nmol/l on an average.  

No HCN1 staining was observed in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus and the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB).  

To further test this hypothesis, we have measured the responses of single units from the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus in which wideband inhibition is particularly pronounced.  

In the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus, long-term synaptic plasticity can be induced at the parallel fiber inputs that synapse onto both fusiform principal neurons and cartwheel feedforward inhibitory interneurons.  

To understand better the mechanisms by which GABA(B) receptors mediate their inhibitory effects, we used pre-embedding immunocytochemical techniques combined with quantification of immunogold particles to reveal the precise subcellular distribution of the GABA(B1) subunit in the rat Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus. The most intense immunoreactivity for GABA(B1) was found in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus, whereas immunoreactivity in the anteroventral and posteroventral cochlear nuclei was very low. In the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus, a punctate labeling was observed in the superficial (molecular and fusiform cell) layers.  

Neurons in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus of the guinea pig were classified according to their positivity to the inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine, ultrastructure and projections to the inferior colliculus as indicated by tract-tracing and ultrastructural immunocytochemistry. Smaller neurons in superficial layers of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus did not project to the inferior colliculus, and were recognized as glycine-negative granule and unipolar brush cells. Other medium-large glycine positive neurons in the superficial (cartwheel) and deep layers (tuberculo-ventral and large-giant) of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus did not project to the inferior colliculus. These observations suggest that very few terminals in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus of the guinea pig are derived from the inferior colliculus..  

Neurons in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) respond specifically to spectral cues and integrate them with somatosensory, vestibular and higher-level auditory information through parallel fiber inputs in a cerebellum-like circuit.  

In addition, we found that another glutamate receptor, GluRdelta2, which is abundant only in parallel fibre synapses on Purkinje cells and in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus, is up-regulated at these synapses in mutant mice; this probably reflects some change in GluRdelta2 targeting to these synapses..  

Copulation-induced Fos was observed in the medial divisions of both the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DC) and trapezoid bodies (Tz), areas which are part of a circuit processing auditory information.  

In addition to the cerebellum, strong to medium ROR alpha immunoreactivity was found in the thalamus, cerebral cortex (mainly in the layer IV), Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN), suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), superior colliculus, spinal trigeminal nucleus, and retina.  

Anesthesia alters the response properties of neurons in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN).  

Chronic increases in spontaneous multiunit activity can be induced in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) of hamsters by intense sound exposure (Kaltenbach and McCaslin, 1996).  

A hyperpolarization-activated current recorded from the pyramidal cells of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus was investigated in the present study by using 150- to 200-microm-thick brain slices prepared from 6- to 14-day-old Wistar rats.  

The neuronal regions expressing the highest levels of Kv1.4 protein included the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, the posterolateral and posteromedial ventral thalamic nuclei, the dorsolateral and medial geniculate nuclei, the substantia nigra and the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus.  

Other observations implicate the muscle spindle as initiating the neural activation that ultimately modulates the central auditory pathway, including the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus.  

No significant changes in uptake were observed in the ipsilateral Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus, superior olivary complex, auditory cortex and any contralateral structures.  

In anesthetized animals with unilateral electrical stimulation of the cochlear nerve increased expression of c-Fos was detected in the ipsilateral ventral (VCN) and bilateral Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN), whereas the VCN of the contralateral side revealed only few immunoreactive cells.  

In the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus, a high density of catestatin-LI consists of varicose fibers, immunoreactive varicosities and immunoreactive neurons.  

Exposure to impulse noise led to prolonged c-fos expression in auditory cortex and Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus.  

During intracellular recordings in rodent brainstem slice preparations, Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) pyramidal cells (PCs) exhibit characteristic discharge patterns to depolarizing current injection that depend on the membrane potential from which the responses are evoked.  

CR immunoreactivity was analyzed in the deep layer (layer III) of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) in CBA/CaJ mice that were bilaterally deafened at 3 months of age with kanamycin, and then aged until 24 months.  

Conceivably, TMJD could irritate auricolo-temporal nerve (ATN), triggering a somatosensory pathway-induced disinhibition of Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) activity in the auditory pathway.  

The temporal properties of spontaneous and (or) evoked discharges of 157 neurons localized in Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus of anaesthetized cats have been studied.  

We have confirmed profuse projections into the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus from all onset cells, and more focal projections from some members of all three groups of chopper cells..  

Physiological evidence suggests that the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) plays a critical role in the brainstem processing of this directional feature.  

The Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) of Tree Shrews (Tupaia glis; n=2) was examined by calbindin (CB) immunohistochemistry for the presence of Purkinje-like cells (PLCs), detected previously in only four different mammals.  

Using post-embedding ultrastructural immunogold labelling, the distribution of glycinergic and GABAergic neurons and axonal terminals has been studied in the molecular, fusiform and polymorphic layers of the rat Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN). Numerous glycinergic and GABAergic axon terminals contain pleomorphic and flat synaptic vesicles, and are present in all layers (1, 2, 3) of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus.  

Little is known of the cell composition and neural circuits of granule cell areas present in the fusiform and upper polymorphic layers of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus in the guinea pig.  

The projections of nine distinguishable cell types in the cochlear nucleus-seven in the ventral cochlear nucleus and two in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus-are described in this review. Fusiform cells in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus appear to be important for the localization of sounds based on spectral cues and send direct excitatory projections to the inferior colliculus. Giant cells in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus also project directly to the inferior colliculus; some of them may convey inhibitory inputs to the contralateral cochlear nucleus as well..  

Injections of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) into the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) of the rat label axons and swellings in several brainstem structures, including the ipsilateral LSO.  

The quantitative stereological method, the optical fractionator, was used for determining the total number of neurons and calcium binding immunopositive neurons (calbindin, parvalbumin and calretinin) during aging in the posteroventral- and Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (PVCN and DCN) in C57 mice.  

In isolated pyramidal neurons of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus of the rat the effect of fluoxetine (S(+), R(-) and racemic) was studied on the Ca2+ channels by measuring peak Ba2+ current during ramp depolarizations.  

Ventrotubercular cells are multipolar cells in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) that project a collateral axon to the ipsilateral Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN).  

Simultaneous fluorescence imaging and electrophysiologic recordings were used to investigate the Ca(2+) influx initiated by action potentials (APs) into Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) pyramidal cell (PC) and cartwheel cell (CWC) dendrites.  

Within the circuits of the acoustic nuclei, the inferior colliculus sends descending (collicular) terminals to control with a feedback mechanism, part of the activity of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN).  

The afferent neuronal connections of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus were investigated in rats by using a trans-synaptic retrograde tract-tracing method. The neurotropic viral tracer, the Bartha strain of the pseudorabies virus was stereotaxically injected into the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus, ipsilaterally. Neurons, which project directly or indirectly (one or multiple relays by other neurons) to the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus were infected and visualized by immunohistochemistry.  

The Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus integrates acoustic with multimodal sensory inputs from widespread areas of the brain.  

It is known that the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus and medial geniculate body in the auditory system receive significant inputs from somatosensory and visual-motor sources, but the purpose of such inputs is not totally understood. We demonstrate that the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus and the small cell cap of the ventral cochlear nucleus have a direct projection to the medial division of the medial geniculate body.  

The volumes of the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) and Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN), and the maximal cross-sectional area and densities of cell bodies in the anterior ventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) were measured bilaterally by light microscopy assisted by the Neurolucida 2000 image analysis system.  

The results of these experiments support our parallel-processing model of the ICC by linking the ITD sensitivity of type V and I units to putative inputs from the medial superior olive and lateral superior olive and by showing that most type O units lack a systematic sensitivity to binaural temporal information presumably because their dominant ascending inputs arise from weakly binaural neurons in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus..  

Results indicate low, but detectable expression of biotinidase throughout the brain, but increased concentrations of biotinidase within the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus, ventral cochlear nucleus, and superior olivary complex of the brainstem, as well as, in the hair cells and spiral ganglion of the cochlea.  

Chronic increases in multiunit spontaneous activity are induced in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) following exposures to intense sound.  

Many cells in the outer two layers of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) express high levels of the phospholipid-activated, calcium dependent kinase, protein kinase C (PKC), an enzyme that can phosphorylate numerous proteins involved in neurotransmission and postsynaptic signaling.  

The cerebellum-like structures include the medial octavolateral nucleus in most aquatic vertebrates; the dorsal octavolateral nucleus in many aquatic vertebrates with an electrosensory system; the marginal layer of the optic tectum in ray-finned fishes; electrosensory lobes in the few groups of advanced bony fish with an electrosensory system; the rostrolateral nucleus of the thalamus in a few widely scattered groups of bony fish; and the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus in all mammals except monotremes.  

PICK1-immunoreactivity (ir) was observed in many component nuclei of the central auditory system, including the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus, anteroventral cochlear nucleus, posteroventral cochlear nucleus, some divisions of the superior olivary complex, inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body, and primary auditory cortex.  

The med(J) mutation results in greatly reduced levels of Scn8a voltage-gated sodium channels, which causes abnormal conduction of action potentials throughout the nervous system and may account for the virtual absence of spontaneous bursting activity in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus.  

In this line, recombination of an R26R reporter allele occurred postnatally in granule cells of the cerebellum and Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus, as well as in a subset of precerebellar nuclei in the brainstem.  

Cisplatin causes both acute and chronic forms of tinnitus as well as increases in spontaneous neural activity (hyperactivity) in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) of hamsters.  

The choroid plexus was then partially removed and the tela choroidea divided and bent back; the floor of the lateral recess of the fourth ventricle and the convolution of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus became visible.  

Concentrations of glutamine, gamma-aminobutyrate, and glycine were also lower in some ventral and Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus regions of treated animals.  

These neurons resided in the posteroventral and anteroventral cochlear nucleus, the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus, the lateral superior olive, the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, the dorsal and ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, and the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus.  

The effects of divalent cations on voltage-activated Ca2+ channels and depolarization-evoked cytoplasmic [ Ca2+] elevations were studied in pyramidal neurones isolated from the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus of the rat.  

Fusiform cells represent the major class of Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) projection neuron.  

Fusiform cells in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) of barbiturate-anesthetized Mongolian gerbils were characterized physiologically and labeled with neurobiotin.  

Recent investigations in the hamster have implicated increased spontaneous activity (SA) in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) as a contributing factor in the etiology of tinnitus induced by intense sound exposure.  

Previous studies found increased multi-unit spontaneous activity in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) of animals that had been exposed to intense sound.  

We compared the effects of acetylcholine agonists and antagonists on spontaneously discharging neurons in MVN, SuVN, and SpVN with those in the nearby Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN).  

Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) principal cells display similar response map features and project directly to the ICC, and are thus supposed to be the dominant source of excitatory input for type O units.  

Cytoplasmic [ Ca(2+)] ([ Ca(2+)](i)) was measured using Fura-2 in pyramidal neurones isolated from the rat Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN).  

Human REN immunostaining was observed in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus, hypothalamus, and cortex.  

1991) suggested that type IV units in decerebrate cat Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) are functional detectors of these spectral notches.  

The neural tracer wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horse radish peroxidase was injected into the rat Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus and acoustic stria. The present study is in accordance with previous tract-tracing light microscopic studies which have indicated that large glycinergic neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus act as broad-band inhibitory neurons in microcircuits of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus and contralateral cochlear nucleus..  

An analysis of central afferent projections to the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (dCo), one of the three target nuclei of the auditory nerve, was made using retrograde axonal tracer, wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) in the rabbit.  

Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus, inferior colliculus).  

The Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) is a second-order auditory structure that also receives nonauditory information, including somatosensory inputs from the dorsal column and spinal trigeminal nuclei.  

We determined the distribution of FKBP-12 within the mammalian cochlea and Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) in order to gain insight into Ca(2+) regulation within the cochlea and to possibly identify potential cellular targets for neuroimmunophilin ligands that may prove useful in protection and recovery following ototoxic insult.  

These findings imply that the pathophysiological state of the auditory periphery may influence the neuronal homeostasis in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus..  

Unique among mammals, the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) of horseshoe bats consists of two functionally and anatomically distinct subdivisions: a laminated ventral portion that processes the frequency range below the constant frequency (CF) component of the echolocation signal and a nonlaminated dorsal portion that is specialized for processing the CF-signal range (76 kHz and higher).  

The GCD receives auditory and nonauditory inputs and projects in turn to the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus, thus appearing to serve as a central locus for integrating polysensory information and descending feedback. There is no PN projection to the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus.  

Although the specific locations of the main, if not sole, sources of serotonin within the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus subdivision are known to be the dorsal and median raphe nuclei, sources of serotonin located within other cochlear nucleus subdivisions are not currently known. They were found in the molecular layer of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus, in the small cell cap region, and in the granule cell and external regions of the cochlear nuclei, bilaterally, of all cats. Fiber segments were most dense in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (especially in the molecular layer) and the large spherical cell area of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus; they were moderately dense in the small cell cap region; and fiber segments were least dense in the octopus and multipolar cell regions of the posteroventral cochlear nucleus. Because of the presence of labeled fiber segments in subdivisions of the cochlear nucleus other than the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus, we concluded that the serotoninergic projection pattern to the cochlear nucleus is divergent and non-specific.  

Similarities to staining patterns in other mammals included a higher density of serotonergic fibers in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus and in granule cell regions than in the ventral cochlear nucleus, a high density of fibers in some periolivary nuclei of the superior olive, and a higher density of fibers in peripheral regions of the inferior colliculus compared with its core. The two novel features of serotonergic innervation in Tadarida were a high density of fibers in the fusiform layer of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus relative to surrounding layers and a relatively high density of serotonergic fibers in the low-frequency regions of the lateral and medial superior olive..  

In the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus, fusiform (pyramidal) and giant cells express alpha1, alpha3, beta3 and gamma2L. Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus interneurons, particularly vertical or tuberculoventral cells and cartwheel cells, express alpha3, beta3 and gamma2L.  

We present the 20-year case report of an auditory implant placed on the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus with long-term electrical stimulation in a patient with neurofibromatosis 2.  

Large neurons in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus of the guinea pig which project to the inferior colliculus were identified after injections of the neural tracer WGA-HRP. Retrograde labelled cells (pyramidal and giant neurons) in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus were glycine and GABA immunonegative and showed a similar ultrastructure. This suggests that a few inhibitory collicular terminals contact the excitatory large neurons in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus..  

The floor of the lateral recess of the fourth ventricle and the convolution of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus became visible.  

Pyramidal cells in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) show three characteristic discharge patterns in response tones: pauser, buildup, and regular firing.  

We have investigated the subcellular compartmentalization of Kv1.4, a transient, fast-inactivating potassium channel, in fusiform cells and related interneurons of the rat Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus. Using a high-resolution combination of immunocytochemical methods, Kv1.4 was localized mainly in the apical dendritic trunks and cell bodies of fusiform cells, as well as in dendrites and cell bodies of interneurons of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus, likely cartwheel cells. These findings indicate that Kv1.4 is largely distributed in dendritic compartments of fusiform and cartwheel cells of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus.  

The cerebellum and cerebellar-like structures (including the dorsal and medial octavolateral nucleus of fishes and amphibians, the electrosensory lateral line lobe of electroreceptive teleost fishes and the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus of mammals) have similar anatomy, common developmental origins and common cellular markers.  

There are also defects in differentiation and patterning of the cochlear duct and sensory epithelium and loss of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus.  

The floor of the lateral recess of the fourth ventricle and the convolution of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus became visible.  

However, the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus was significantly larger and the anteroventral cochlear nucleus was significantly smaller in young adults of the wild strain.  

Both GABA and taurine showed decreasing gradients from superficial to deep layers of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus. They support a neurotransmitter role also for GABA, especially in the superficial layers of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus, but less in the superior olive.  

The dendrites of octopus cells cross the bundle of auditory nerve fibers just proximal to where the fibers leave the ventral and enter the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus, each octopus cell spanning about one-third of the tonotopic array.  

There is evidence that pentobarbital, a commonly used anesthetic, can affect neuronal activity, but its effects on particular neurons of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) are not well known.  

The cartwheel cell is the most numerous inhibitory interneuron of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN).  

The role of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) in directional hearing was evaluated by measuring sound localization behaviors before and after cats received lesions of the dorsal and intermediate acoustic striae (DAS/IAS).  

Like cbln1, cbln3 was expressed in the cerebellum and Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus in which it was detected in granule neurons.  

Increases in multiunit spontaneous activity (hyperactivity) can be induced in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) by intense sound exposure.  

To determine if this enhancement was due to loss of sideband inhibition, we recorded from single neurons in the IC and Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus before and after presenting a traumatizing above the unit's characteristic frequency (CF).  

The significance of voltage-activated Ca2+ currents in eliciting cytoplasmic Ca2+ transients was studied in pyramidal neurones isolated from the rat Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus using combined enzyme treatment/mechanical trituration. Analysis of the blocking effects of these agents on the [ Ca2+]i, transients indicates that, in the pyramidal neurones of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus, N-type Ca2+ channels are primarily responsible for producing the depolarization-induced increases in [ Ca2+]i..  

High K+ was used to depolarize glia and neurons in order to study the effects on amino acid release from and concentrations within the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) of brain slices.  

RESULTS: Most of the GABA-immunoreactive cell bodies were found in the superficial layers of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN).  

Tuberculo-ventral neurons of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus send isofrequency inhibitory inputs to bushy cells of the ventral cochlear nucleus. Injection of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase into the rat ventral cochlear nucleus, labelled tuberculo-ventral neurons retrogradely in the deep polymorphic layer of the ipsilateral Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus. This study shows that the synaptic profile of tuberculo-ventral neurons is different from that of other medium-size glycinergic neurons within the polymorphic layer or more superficial regions of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus like cartwheel neurons.  

Neurons in the rat Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus that project to the inferior colliculus (pyramidal and giant) were retrograde labelled with wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxydase. No other cells of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus, in particular cartwheel and tuberculo-ventral neurons, were in contact with labelled boutons. The present results suggest that descending inhibitory collicular projections are essentially directed to the large excitatory neurons of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus..  

These cells in the deep polymorphic layer of the rat Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus were identified with the electron microscope after injection of the retrograde tracer, Wheat Germ Agglutinin conjugated to Horseradish Peroxydase, into the contralateral cochlear nucleus.  

Although the staining intensity was relatively low compared to that of the forebrain, moderate alpha(1B)-IR was found in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus and mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus.  

In this study, some chemical parameters of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) in rat brain slices were measured and compared to the in vivo state.  

To test this possibility, the present study examined the effects of cisplatin treatment on cochlear hair cells and on spontaneous neural activity in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus of hamsters. Recordings, carried out approximately 1 month after cisplatin treatment, demonstrated significant increases in spontaneous activity across broad regions of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus relative to levels in saline-treated controls. These findings indicate that cisplatin treatment causes abnormalities in spontaneous activity in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus that are associated with widespread damage to outer hair cells.  

Intense tone exposure induces increased spontaneous activity (hyperactivity) in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) of hamsters.  

In vitro studies have implicated muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) in the modulation of spontaneous activity (SA) of neurons in the rat Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) (Chen et al., 1994,1998).  

The Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) is rich in both glycine and GABA inhibitory neurotransmitter systems, and the response properties of its principal cells (pyramidal and giant cells) are strongly shaped by inhibitory inputs.  

We tested two hypotheses to determine whether Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) neurons are specialized to derive directionality from spectral notches: DCN neurons exhibit greater spectral-dependent directionality than ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) neurons, and spectral-dependent directionality depends on response minima (nulls) produced by coincidence of best frequency (BF) and spectral-notch center frequency.  

Based on these clinical features, it is proposed that somatic (craniocervical) tinnitus, like otic tinnitus, is caused by disinhibition of the ipsilateral Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus. CONCLUSIONS: Somatic (craniocervical) modulation of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus may account for many previously poorly understood aspects of tinnitus and suggests novel tinnitus treatments..  

In an effort to establish relationships between cell physiology and morphology in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN), intracellular single-unit recording and marking experiments were conducted on decerebrate gerbils using horseradish peroxidase (HRP)- or neurobiotin-filled micropipettes.  

Using 15 microm thick serial paraffine sections of the cochlear nuclei, estimates of volume, neuronal densities, number of cells and mean cell diameter of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) and VCN were obtained.  

Spontaneous activity was recorded in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus of brain slices from mice homozygous for the med-J and jolting mutations in the neuronal sodium channel alpha-subunit Scn8a.  

These transporters are found in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) and medial nucleus of the trapezoid body.  

Very dense immunostaining is observed in the superior olivary nucleus, periolivary nucleus, facial motor nucleus and Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus in hindbrain whereas light immunostaining is seen in forebrain and midbrain areas.  

Bushy, octopus, and T-stellate cells of the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) and tuberculoventral cells of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) receive most of their excitatory input from the auditory nerve; fusiform cells receive excitatory inputs from both the auditory nerve and parallel fibers; cartwheel cells receive excitatory input from parallel fibers alone.  

Although non-laminated structures such as facial nucleus, inferior olivary complex, and Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus are also cytoarchitectually deranged in this mutant, only a few studies have been done to clarify the detailed abnormalities in these non-laminated structures.  


-
[ View All ]