Dorsal Nucleus Of Lateral Lemniscus


Moreover, chemical block of glutamate transmissions in the contralateral inferior colliculus markedly reduced the ipsilaterally driven FFRs, which, however, were significantly enhanced by blocking the contralateral dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. Thus, FFRs in inferior colliculus to ipsilateral stimulation were facilitated by excitatory projections from the contralateral inferior colliculus but suppressed by inhibitory projections from the contralateral dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus..  

We used broadband noise stimuli to investigate the interaural-delay sensitivity of low-frequency neurons in two midbrain nuclei: the inferior colliculus (IC) and the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus.  

Axonal projections from the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) distribute contralaterally in a pattern of banded layers in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC).  

A group of ChAT-IR cells lies dorsal to the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus.  

We recorded from ITD-sensitive neurons in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) while presenting pure tones at different ITDs embedded in noise.  

The dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) receives afferent inputs from many brain stem nuclei and, in turn, is a major source of inhibitory inputs to the inferior colliculus (IC).  

Axonal projections from the lateral superior olivary nuclei (LSO), as well as from the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) and dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL), converge in frequency-ordered layers in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC) where they distribute among different synaptic compartments.  

We performed in vivo recordings in Mongolian gerbils of neurons of the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL), a GABAergic brainstem nucleus that targets the auditory midbrain, and show that these DNLL neurons exhibit inhibition that persists tens of milliseconds beyond the stimulus offset, so-called persistent inhibition (PI).  

After blocking the massive GABAergic projection from the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) to the contralateral central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) in anesthetized rats, a reactive increase in the efficacy of other inhibitory circuits in the ICC (separable because of the dominant ear that drives each circuit) was demonstrated with physiological measures-single-neuron activity and a neural-population-evoked response.  

Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that unilateral or bilateral cochlear ablation at postnatal day 2 (P2) disrupts the development of afferent bands from the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) to the IC.  

Notably, particularly high levels of Cbln mRNAs were expressed in some nuclei and neurons, whereas their postsynaptic targets often lacked or were low for any Cbln mRNAs, as seen for cerebellar granule cells/Purkinje cells, entorhinal cortex/hippocampus, intralaminar group of thalamic nuclei/caudate-putamen, and dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus/central nucleus of the inferior colliculus.  

Both cues are initially processed in the superior olivary complex (SOC), which projects to the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) and the auditory midbrain.  

Interaural time differences, a cue for azimuthal sound location, are first encoded in the superior olivary complex (SOC), and this information is then conveyed to the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) and inferior colliculus (IC).  

Here we report on response properties and the roles of inhibition in three brain stem nuclei of Mexican-free tailed bats: the inferior colliculus (IC), the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) and the intermediate nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (INLL).  

Urocortin 1-positive neurons were detected in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus of DBA/2J mice, but were absent in the C57BL/6J strain.  

In the mammalian brain, such interaural time differences (ITDs) are encoded in the auditory brain stem; first by the medial superior olive (MSO) and then transferred to higher centers, such as the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL), a brain stem nucleus that gets a direct input from the MSO.  

In contrast, HCN2 staining was strongest in the MNTB and the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus.  

In this study, we used Phaseolus leucoagglutinin as an anterograde tracer to examine the projections from the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus to the contralateral IC in adult ferrets.  

This study evaluated how neurons in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) in Mexican free-tailed bats respond to both tone bursts and species-specific calls.  

EI neurons are first created in the lateral superior olive (LSO), but they also dominate the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) and regions of the IC.  

To test this, we measured ITD tuning across frequency in neurons from the superior olivary complex, the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, the inferior colliculus, the auditory thalamus, and the auditory cortex.  

By reversibly inactivating the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) in Mexican free-tailed bats with kynurenic acid, we show that the EI properties of many IC cells are formed de novo via an inhibitory projection from the DNLL on the opposite side.  

Neurons in each of these four classes projected to the inferior colliculus and dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus..  

In a previous paper (Reed and Blum, 1999), we examined the connectional hypotheses put forward by Markovitz and Pollak (1994) to explain the steady-state behavior of cells in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL).  

To better understand the development of the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL), intrinsic membrane properties and synaptic responses of DNLL neurons in brain slice preparations were examined.  

Several of these inputs, including inhibitory connections from the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL), are highly ordered and organized into series of afferent bands or patches.  

In the midbrain, transient elevations and/or deficits in binding were evident in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus as well as in the central and dorsal nucleus of the inferior colliculus.  

In addition, AAF and particularly DP and VP project to paralemniscal regions around the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL), to the DNLL itself and to the rostroventral aspect of the superior olivary complex.  

Binaural responses of single neurons in the rat's central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) were recorded before and after local injection of excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists (either 1,2, 3,4-tetrahydro-6-nitro-2,3-dioxo-benzo[ f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide disodium [ NBQX], (+/-)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid [ CPP], 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione [ CNQX], or (+/-)-2amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid [ APV]) into the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL).  

The purpose of the present study was to determine the development of the projection from the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) to the IC in rat prior to the onset of hearing (postnatal day 12/13).  

Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from neurons in the rat's dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) in a brain slice preparation.  

Several studies have been performed in which both the time-dependent and steady state output of cells in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) have been measured in response to binaural sound stimulation.  

In the present study, we correlated asymmetries in the outputs of the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) to the two inferior colliculi (ICs), with asymmetries in the inputs to DNLL from the two lateral superior olives (LSOs).  

The dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) is an auditory structure of the brainstem.  

After recordings were made, both anterograde and retrograde tract tracing methods were used to verify that the CP was completely transected and that all crossed projections from the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) to ICC were destroyed.  

No significant increase of FLI was observed in the central nucleus of the IC, ventral and dorsal parts of the MGB, dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, or ventral cochlear nucleus.  

The dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) is a distinct auditory neuronal group located ventral to the inferior colliculus (IC).  

The conventional view, based largely on studies in cats, holds that the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) is tonotopically organized with a dorsal (low-frequency) to ventral (high-frequency) representation.  

The aim of the present study was to characterize the discharge properties of single neurons in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) of the rat.  

The dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus had a crude tonotopy.  

Neurons that respond to unmodulated tones with a sustained discharge are found in the dorsal nucleus (DNLL), intermediate nucleus (INLL) and multipolar cell division of the ventral nucleus (VNLLm).  

Extracellular recordings were obtained from single neurons in the multipolar and columnar divisions of the ventral nucleus (VNLLm and VNLLc), the intermediate nucleus (INLL) and the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL).  

Previous studies have shown that comparable phase-locking to SAM occurs in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) and medial superior olive (MSO) of the mustache bat.  

Five possible sources for the inhibition are considered: the auditory nerve, intrinsic circuits in the cochlear nucleus, medial and lateral nuclei of the trapezoid body inhibition to the medial superior olive, dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) inhibition to the ICC, and intrinsic circuits in the ICC itself..  

The dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) is a binaural nucleus whose neurons are excited by stimulation of the contralateral ear and inhibited by stimulation of the ipsilateral ear.  

Extracellular recordings were made with microelectrodes from single neurons in the rat's dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) and response characteristics were determined for monaural and binaural acoustic stimulation.  

The results from FG retrograde labeling alone showed that neurons in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) bilaterally, in the intermediate and ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (INLL and VNLL) ipsilaterally, and in the ICC contralaterally project to the ICC.  

In the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) neurons were labeled both ipsilaterally and contralaterally to the injection site with a larger proportion projecting to the contralateral side.  

Inhibitory and excitatory postsynaptic potentials were evoked by electrical stimulation of the ascending afferents at the level of the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. In addition, GABA(A) and glycine receptor antagonists typically led to an increase of calcium in collicular neurons during electrical stimulation of the ascending afferent pathway at the level of the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus.  

These regions included bilaterally the principal nuclei of the superior olivary complex, some periolivary regions, and the sagulum, as well as the ipsilateral intermediate and dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, inferior colliculus, and lateral pontine nucleus.  

The dorsal nucleus contained mostly GABA-immunoreactive neurons (85%), with moderate numbers of GABA- and glycine-immunoreactive puncta along their somata.  

Hyperpolarization-activated inward current in neurons of the rat's dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus in vitro. The hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih) underlying inward rectification in neurons of the rat's dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) was investigated using whole cell patch-clamp techniques.  

Other nuclei, known to be involved in auditory transmission (i.e., superior olivary complex; trapezoid nucleus; dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, DNLL), did not show differential FLI densities between seizure and AS control animals.  

The synaptic events underlying the excitation of neurons in the rat's dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus were studied by whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in a brain slice preparation of the auditory midbrain. Synaptic responses were evoked by a bipolar stimulating electrode placed on the lateral lemniscus just ventral to the dorsal nucleus. Under voltage-clamp conditions, dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus neurons responded to stimulation of the lateral lemniscus with excitatory postsynaptic currents. The results indicate that both N-methyl-D-aspartate and non-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated synaptic responses are present in dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus neurons of rats at 21-35 days of age. The long-duration N-methyl-D-aspartate component is probably responsible for the prolonged inhibitory effect of dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus neurons on physiological responses in the rat's inferior colliculus..  

The dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus also contained GABA-positive projection neurons.  

There was significant neuron loss in the dorsal nucleus of lateral lemniscus (DNLL) in lesion-only animals relative to grafted rats and sham controls.  

The focus is on the processing of interaural intensity disparities, the cues animals use to localize high-frequency sounds, and the roles of the lateral superior olives and the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) in shaping the binaural properties of their targets in the inferior colliculus.  

The distribution and morphology of axons projecting from the medial superior olivary nucleus to the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus were studied in the adult cat. Before entering the inferior colliculus, collateral branches of these labeled axons ended in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus in thin, horizontal bands forming laminae that extended throughout the rostral-caudal length of the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. The spatial relationships of axonal domains of several axons labeled from a single injection in the medial superior olivary nucleus suggest a mosaic pattern in the laminar connections with the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus..  

The first source, the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL), is predominantly GABAergic and has both ipsi- and contralateral projections to the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC).  

It is located in the dorsal tegmentum rostral and medial to the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and is characterized by medium sized and large neurons.  

We studied the phase-locking of 89 neurons in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) of the mustache bat to sinusoidally amplitude modulated (SAM) signals and the influence that GABAergic inhibition had on their response properties.  

The ability of rats to localize sounds in space was determined before and after kainic acid lesions of the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL).  

The contribution of the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) to binaural responses in the inferior colliculus of the rat was determined for a wide range of interaural time differences (ITDs).  

In one case the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and the anterolateral periolivary nucleus were labeled.  

After postoperative testing was completed, the effectiveness of the lesions was confirmed by cell counts to determine the extent of retrograde degeneration in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL).  

The dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) of the mustache bat, Pteronotus parnellii, was found to consist of two divisions.  

Most of the contralateral GABAergic input originates in the IC and the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL).  

The contribution of voltage-activated outward potassium currents to membrane excitability of neurons in the rat's dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) was studied in a brain slice preparation using whole cell patch-clamp and intracellular recordings.  

Several nuclei of the lemniscal auditory pathway (dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, central nucleus of the inferior colliculus, lateral superior olive) as well as the nucleus of the central acoustic tract appear to project to the paralemniscal tegmentum.  

Focal injections of the tracer biocytin, made in physiologically defined frequency regions of the CNIC, labelled laminated axonal terminal fields in the ipsilateral dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, and bilaterally in the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body and the dorsal cochlear nucleus. Labelling observed in the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, and to a lesser extent in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, was accompanied by retrogradely labelled somata and therefore we cannot conclude unequivocally that the CNIC projects to these lemniscal nuclei.  

The synaptic pharmacology of the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) of the rat was investigated in a brain slice preparation of the auditory midbrain.  

Postmortem implantation of diI crystals unilaterally into grafts demonstrated fiber labeling in the ipsilateral IC and lateral lemniscus, and retrograde labeling of neurons in the remaining host IC and dorsal nucleus of lateral lemniscus.  

Electrical stimulation of the cochlea induced Fos-like immunoreactivity in the cochlear nucleus, mainly in its dorsal nucleus, in the superior olivary complex, in the lateral lemniscus, but not in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus, the main relay nucleus in the auditory midbrain.  

The dorsal nucleus (DNLL) receives input mostly from binaural structures, the lateral and medial superior olives and the contralateral DNLL, with only a minor projection from the cochlear nucleus.  

We made intracellular recordings from neurons in rat dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL), determined intrinsic and synaptic physiological properties, and labeled the cells by intracellular injection of biocytin.  

We examined the physiological properties of neurons in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) of the rat in a 400-microns tissue slice taken in the frontal plane through the auditory midbrain.  

The lateral superior olive and medial superior olive give rise to pathways that terminate in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. In the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, label from the lateral and medial superior olives largely overlapped.  

There were smaller projections to the lateral nucleus of the trapezoid body ipsilaterally, the dorsal and dorsomedial periolivary nuclei bilaterally, and the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus contralaterally.  

The present investigation used an antibody directed against the extracellular domain of the signal transducing nerve growth factor receptor, trkA, to reveal immunoreactive perikarya or fibers within the olfactory bulb and tubercle, cingulate cortex, nucleus accumbens, striatum, endopiriform nucleus, septal/diagonal band complex, nucleus basalis, hippocampal complex, thalamic paraventricular and reuniens nuclei, periventricular hypothalamus, interpeduncular nucleus, mesencephalic nucleus of the fifth nerve, dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, prepositus hypoglossal nucleus, ventral cochlear nucleus, ventral lateral tegmentum, medial vestibular nucleus, spinal trigeminal nucleus oralis, nucleus of the solitary tract, raphe nuclei, and spinal cord.  

In the lateral tegmental field, the marginal nucleus of the brachium conjunctivum, the superior central nucleus, the nucleus sagulum, the dorsal nucleus of the raphe, the interpeduncular nucleus and the retrorubral nucleus the density of immunoreactive cell bodies was moderate. A moderate density of calbindin-immunoreactive fibers was found in the retrorubral nucleus, the central linear nucleus, the locus coeruleus, the nucleus sagulum, the dorsal nucleus of the raphe, the cuneiform nucleus, the ventral and dorsal nuclei of the lateral lemniscus, the medial nucleus of the solitary tract, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, and the cuneate nucleus.  

We studied the monaural response properties of 81 neurons in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) of the mustache bat before and during the iontophoretic application of antagonists that blocked gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptors (bicuculline) or glycine receptors (strychnine).  

We studied the monaural and binaural response properties of 99 neurons in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) of the mustache bat before and during the iontophoretic application of antagonists that blocked gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptors (bicuculline) or glycine receptors (strychnine).  

Whether this applies to the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL), however, is still debated.  

These lesions also involved to various degrees other midbrain structures, including the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and the lateral tegmentum. More extensive unilateral lesions that included the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and the lateral tegmentum as well as the inferior colliculus resulted in severe deficits in sound localization.  

Sparse FLI was detected in the superior olivary complex, the pontine nuclei and the ipsilateral dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, whereas the contralateral dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus was moderately labeled.  

The periaqueductal gray, brachium of the inferior colliculus, nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus, locus coeruleus, nucleus incertus, K├Âlliker-Fuse nucleus, facial nucleus, medial nucleus of the solitary tract and the area postrema contained a moderate density of immunoreactive fibres, whereas the pericentral nucleus of the inferior colliculus, nucleus sagulum, cuneiform nucleus, dorsal nucleus of the raphe, superior central nucleus, central, lateral and paralemniscal tegmental fields, ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, dorsal tegmental nucleus, postpyramidal nucleus of the raphe, nucleus ambiguus, accessory dorsal tegmental nucleus, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and the inferior olive had the lowest density of immunoreactive fibres..  

We studied the binaural properties of 72 neurons in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) of the mustache bat.  

These included: frontoparietal and occipital cortical fields, the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, and many brainstem structures, such as the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, posterodorsal tegmental, medial and lateral vestibular, ventral cochlear, and prepositus hypoglossal nuclei.  

Neurons in the mustache bat dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) were examined in response to monaural stimulation.  

The dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) provides a major GABAergic projection to ICc.  

The dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DLL) is the main source of inhibitory influence in the auditory brainstem of mammals.  

Connectional evidence suggests that the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) and the paralemniscal zone (PL) function as centers for binaural analysis interposed between the superior olivary complex and the midbrain.  

The central nucleus of the IC projects in a topographic order to the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DLL), the rostral periolivary nucleus (RPO), the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body (VNTB), and the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN).  

This study attempts to determine whether the pathways from the guinea pig dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) to the inferior colliculus (IC) use gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as a transmitter.  

In two neurons the ascending axon formed terminal arbors in the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, and the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus could be identified as a target of one neuron.  

The contribution of the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) to binaural processing was examined by recording single-unit activity in the rat's inferior colliculus before, during, and after a reversible block of the excitatory activity in DNLL by local injection of kynurenic acid.  

The effects of unilateral lesions of the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) on binaural processing were examined by measuring the amplitude of auditory cortical evoked responses in the albino rat.  

The dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus was void of immunoreactivity.  

After stimulating adult rats with pure-tone pulses, bands of Fos-immunoreactive neurons revealed the frequency representation in seven brainstem nuclei: all three subdivisions of the cochlear nucleus, the lateral superior olive, the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body, the rostral periolivary nucleus, the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and the inferior colliculus.  

The nuclei coeruleus, sagulum, interpeduncular, motor dorsal nucleus of the vagus and nucleus of the solitary tract had a low density of immunoreactive cell bodies.  

Potential sources for these GABAergic synapses are neurons intrinsic to the inferior colliculus or from the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus.  

Moreover, a moderate density of somatostatin-28 (1-12)-immunoreactive processes was found in the dorsal nucleus of the raphe, dorsal tegmental nucleus, accessory dorsal tegmental nucleus, periaqueductal gray and in the marginal nucleus of the brachium conjunctivum.  

However, the dorsal nucleus was cabp(-).  

Three of the 8 decussations (from the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus to the contralateral dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, from the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus to the contralateral inferior colliculus, from the sagulum to the contralateral sagulum) reach their targets via the commissure of Probst. The results also suggest that the commissure of Probst is not a general avenue for decussating auditory fibers of the lateral lemniscus but is instead a specific avenue only for fibers from the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and sagulum. The results also show that, in the cat at least, the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus does not project beyond the inferior colliculus to either the superior colliculus or medial geniculate--the cells previously reported as doing so are probably those of the immediate neighbors of the dorsal nucleus, the intermediate nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and sagulum..  

For instance, CGRP-immunoreactive (CGRP-IR) cells were first visualized in the hypoglossal nucleus and dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus at day 19 of gestation, while by day 1 postnatal the facial and ambiguus nuclei possessed their full complement of immunoreactive neurons relative to that observed in the adult.  

These cells were located in the pericentral inferior colliculus, dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, dorsomedial to the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and immediately lateral to the central grey.  

The densest clusters of immunoreactive perikarya were observed in the following nuclei: anteroventral cochlear, lateral reticular (internal and external divisions), dorsal tegmental, inferior colliculus and dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus.  

Neurons located in the ventral nucleus, in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and in the inferior colliculus developed parvalbumin immunoreactivity mostly between P11-P15 (ventral nucleus), P15-P19 (dorsal nucleus) and P15-P19 (inferior colliculus), respectively.  

These included ipsilateral projections from the medial superior olive and cochlear nucleus and contralateral projections from the inferior colliculus, dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, lateral superior olive, periolivary nuclei and cochlear nucleus.  

Strongly labeled neurons were found in the cranial motor nuclei, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, reticular formation (large neurons), lateral vestibular nucleus, dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, central nucleus of the inferior colliculus, intermediate and white layers of the superior colliculus, red nucleus and substantia nigra.  

Vocalizations without temporal and/or spectral distortions could be consistently elicited at low threshold currents (typically below 10 microA) within three clearly circumscribed brainstem areas, namely, the deep layers and ventral parts of the intermediate layers of the superior colliculus (SC), the deep mesencephalic nucleus (NMP) in the dorsal and lateral midbrain reticular formation and in a distinct area medial to the rostral parts of the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus.  

The fine structure of the projection from the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) to the inferior colliculus is examined in the cat.  

The inputs to the EI region originate primarily from the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) and lateral superior olivary nucleus (LSO) bilaterally and from the ipsilateral INLL.  

It was found that the major inputs to the FM2 region of the inferior colliculus come from the contralateral cochlear nucleus; ipsilaterally from the medial superior olive, periolivary nuclei, and ventral and intermediate nuclei of the lateral lemniscus; and bilaterally from the lateral superior olive and dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus.  

The dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) and its connections constitute one of the ascending auditory pathways to the inferior colliculus.  

This study examines the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) and its afferent and efferent connections.  

In contrast, high levels of muscimol binding of high-affinity GABA-A receptors are confined mostly to the dorsal cochlear nucleus, the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, and the central and cortical regions of the inferior colliculus, while high levels of QNB binding of muscarinic ACh receptors are seen only in the central and cortical regions of the inferior colliculus..  

Outside of the inferior colliculus, sagulum injections labeled other axons ending in the ventral intercollicular tegmentum on both sides and in a dorsal and rostral region of the contralateral nucleus sagulum that appeared contiguous with the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. The distribution of axonal labeling after injections in the nucleus sagulum was contrasted with the distribution of projections from several neighboring areas of the lateral tegmentum, including the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus.  

On the other hand, glycine receptors were detected on the cellular membrane of the soma of the cochlear nuclei, trigeminal motor nucleus, parabrachial area, lateral reticular nucleus, dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, cerebellar nuclei, trigeminal spinal nucleus, anterior horn and reticular formation.  

The ascending projections to the dorsoposterior division include contralateral projections from the cochlear nucleus and inferior colliculus, ipsilateral projections from the medial superior olive, ventral and intermediate nuclei of the lateral lemniscus, and bilateral projections from the lateral superior olive and dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus.  

Thus, as a result, in the medulla and pons, labeled neurons are found in the medial, lateral, and superior vestibular nuclei, the medullary reticular formation including the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis, the lateral reticular nucleus, the nucleus raphe magnus, the spinal nucleus of V, the nucleus gracilis/nucleus cuneatus, the dorsal and ventral divisions of the parabrachial nucleus, the central pontine gray, the nucleus K of Meessen and Olszewski, and the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).  

Ascending projections to the diencephalon are mainly to the medial dorsal nucleus and zona incerta.  

Retrograde label from injection into the external cortex of the inferior colliculus appears bilaterally in cells of the inferior colliculus, as well as in other brainstem auditory groups including the ipsilateral dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and contralateral dorsal cochlear nucleus. Injection of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus results in robust labelling of nuclei of the ascending auditory pathway including the anteroventral, posteroventral, and dorsal cochlear nuclei (mainly contralaterally), and bilaterally the lateral superior olive, lateral nucleus of the trapezoid body, dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, and the central nucleus, dorsal cortex, and external cortex of the colliculus.  

A few projections came from the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus.  

Based on both retrograde and anterograde transport methods, our results suggest that the PPA: receives its main afferent projections from the insulotemporal cortex, basal ganglia, ventromedial and posterior hypothalamic nuclei, zona incerta, inferior colliculus, intermediate and deep layers of the superior colliculus, central gray, cuneiform nucleus, laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, and dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and, projects essentially to the basal ganglia, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, central gray, cuneiform and pedunculopontine nuclei, deep layers of the superior colliculus, inferior colliculus, and dorsal and ventral nuclei of the lateral lemniscus.  

The distribution of best frequencies (BFs) of units in all three nuclei of the lateral lemniscus showed an overrepresentation in the range corresponding to the constant-frequency (CF) part of the echolocation signal ('filter frequency' range): in the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (VNLL) 'filter neurons' represented 43% of all units encountered, in the intermediate nucleus (INLL) 33%, and in dorsal nucleus (DNLL) 29% (Fig. On the average, filter neurons in ventral nucleus had higher Q10dB-values (about 220) than did those in intermediate and dorsal nucleus (both about 160, Fig 2d). Half of all multiple tuned neurons were located in the caudal dorsal nucleus the other half in the caudal intermediate nucleus. Synchronization of responses to sinusoidally frequency modulated (SFM) signals occurred in VNLL-units in the average up to modulation frequencies of 515 Hz (maximum about 800 Hz) whereas in the intermediate and dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus responses were synchronized in the average only up to modulation frequencies of about 300 Hz (maximum about 600 Hz) (Figs. In the dorsal nucleus the tonotopic distribution was found to be fairly similar to that in the intermediate nucleus but much less pronounced. In more rostral parts of the dorsal nucleus additionally higher best frequencies predominated whereas in caudal areas of that nucleus and also of the intermediate nucleus low BFs were found more regularly.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).  

Neuronal groups which are well developed in the human brain stem are the populations of large relay neurons in the cochlear nuclei, the medial olivary nucleus, periolivary region, dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, and inferior colliculus.  

At the same time, stimulus-evoked increases were decreased in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and inferior colliculus, and virtually eliminated in the medial geniculate and auditory cortex.  

Additional sources of auditory information to the caudate nucleus were revealed being as follows: the dorsal nucleus of parvocellular division of the medial geniculate nucleus, deep superior colliculus layer, dorsal and ventral nuclei of the lateral lemniscus.  

In autoradiographs of the brain, labeled neuronal perikarya are seen in the basal forebrain, the caudate-putamen, the medulla oblongata, the ventral cochlear nucleus, and the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus.  

DYN B cell bodies were present in nonpyramidal cells of neo- and allocortices, medium-sized cells of the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, lateral part of the central nucleus of the amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, preoptic area, and in sectors of nearly every hypothalamic nucleus and area, medial pretectal area, and nucleus of the optic tract, periaqueductal gray, raphe nuclei, cuneiform nucleus, sagulum, retrorubral nucleus, peripeduncular nucleus, lateral terminal nucleus, pedunculopontine nucleus, mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus, parabigeminal nucleus, dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, lateral superior olivary nucleus, superior paraolivary nucleus, medial superior olivary nucleus, ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body, lateral dorsal tegmental nucleus, accessory trigeminal nucleus, solitary nucleus, nucleus ambiguus, paratrigeminal nucleus, area postrema, lateral reticular nucleus, and ventrolateral region of the reticular formation.  

Nucleus angularis also projects bilaterally to the superior olive and nucleus ventralis lemnisci lateralis and to the contralateral nucleus lemnisci lateralis pars ventralis and dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus.  

The dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DLL) in the mouse was studied using the rapid Golgi method.  

Fibers, but few terminals, were noted over the dorsal nucleus of the LL.  

The topographic organization of neurons in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) which project to the superior and inferior colliculi was studied using the retrograde horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and the fluorescent double labeling methods.  

Immunocytochemical staining of the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus with a well characterized antiserum to glutamate decarboxylase reveals that all, or nearly all, cells in this nucleus show immunoreactivity without the use of agents to block axonal transport.  

Two units were located in the pericentral nucleus and two in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus.  

Only a few double-labeled neurons were found in the auditory cortex (AC), the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL), the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis pars ventralis (RGcv), and the dorsal column nuclei (DColN) and the spinal trigeminal complex (TrS).  

The most powerful projections were found from the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus bilaterally, with prevailing ipsilateral projections.  

Massive projections to the inferior colliculus were found from the contralateral and ipsilateral dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and ipsilateral ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. Topographic organisation of the pathways ascending to the colliculus was expressed in the cochlear nuclei, lateral superior olivary nucleus and in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus.  

The results showed that (1) in both HRP and autoradiographic studies the projection to the inferior colliculus was largely ipsilateral, although a contralateral component was present; (2) the projection field of MSO was confined to the ventral division of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus, and within this field the labeling was heavier in the rostral and dorsolateral parts of the ventral division; (3) the projection to the inferior colliculus was topographic with ventral parts of MSO projecting ventrally and dorsal parts of MSO projecting dorsolaterally; (4) the projection field in the central nucleus formed successive laminae oriented from ventrolateral to dorsomedial; (5) the axonal course was via the medial or internal segment of the lateral lemniscus; and (6) some fibers in this course ended additionally within the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus.  

After horseradish peroxidase (HRP) injection into the pretectomesencephalic reticular region (Pt-MRF), which includes caudoventral regions of the pretectum and rostrodorsal regions of the midbrain reticular formation, labeled neurons were seen in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DLL), the pericentral (PC) and external (EN) nuclei of the inferior colliculus (IC), the rostral process of IC (RP) and the nucleus of the brachium of IC (NB); no labeled neurons were found in the main laminated portion of the central nucleus of IC.  

Bilateral projections to the inferior colliculus originate within the dorsal column nuclei, the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis pars ventralis, the lateral and medial superior olivary nuclei, the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and the auditory cortex.  

The cytoarchitecture of the dorsal nucleus praeeminentialis in two families of weakly electric fish (Eigenmannia viriscens and Apteronotus albifrons) was examined in both Nissl and Golgi material, and an attempt was made to correlate this information with our data from HRP studies on the afferent and efferent connections of this nucleus.  

Potentiated startle (the difference between light-noise vs noise-alone trials) was significantly attenuated or eliminated by lesions directed at the dorsal nucleus of the lateral geniculate, deep layers of the superior colliculus, visual cortex, and the posteroventral region of the nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. Lesions directed at pretectal nuclei, superficial layers of the superior colliculus, thalamic reticular nucleus, nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis or dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus did not attenuate potentiated startle.  

Most terminate in the ventrolateral division of either the ipsilateral or contralateral central nucleus of the inferior colliculus, some terminate in the ipsilateral or contralateral dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, and a small number terminate in the ipsilateral intermediate nucleus of the lateral lemniscus.  

Bilateral projections arise from the lateral superior olive, lateral nucleus of the trapezoid body, and dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus.  

Other less numerous afferents in the midbrain included the dorsal and median raphe nuclei and the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus.  

The lemnisci from each nucleus parallel each other as they course from medullary to mesencephalic levels; those from the dorsal nucleus assume a lateral position and terminate within the lateral part of the nucleus of the lateral line lemniscus and the lateral nucleus of the midbrain; those within the medial part of the lateral line lemniscal nucleus and the dorsomedial mesencephalic nucleus.  

The auditory pathways in the lower brain stem of Pteronotus appear to conform to the same basic organization as in other mammals: After injection of HRP into one inferior colliculus, labeled cells are located contralaterally in the cochlear nucleus, ipsilaterally in the medical superior olive, bilaterally in the lateral superior olive, ipsilaterally in the ventral and intermediate nuclei of the lateral lemniscus, and bilaterally in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. In the lateral lemniscus the pattern of labeled cells shows clear differences between the two special parts, intermediate and ventral nuclei, as well as between these and the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus.  

By 16 DAB, 2-DG uptake also increased during WBN exposure in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, inferior colliculus and medial geniculate nucleus.  

Injections in the medical nucleus lead to labeling of neurons in the peripeduncular nucleus, the dorsal raphe and superior central nuclei, the parabrachial nucleus, and in the dorsomedial extreme of the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus.  

Other prominent projections arise in the contralateral dorsal nucleus of the eighth nerve and the contralateral torus semicircularis. Relatively minor projections to the torus semicircularis arise in the contralateral superior olive, ipsilateral dorsal nucleus of the eighth nerve, and the ventral division of both the ipsilateral and contralateral eighth nerve nuclei..  

The results indicate that the predominant ascending projections to inferior colliculus originate in (1) contralateral cochlear nucleus, (2) contralateral and ipsilateral lateral superior olive, (3) ipsilateral medial superior olive, (4) ipsilateral ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, (5) ipsilateral and contralateral dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, and (6) contralateral inferior colliculus.  

The dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus is a recipient of afferents from cells located mainly in the superior olivary complex and the contralateral dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus.  

Moreover, with the exception of the medial trapezoid nucleus and the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (which receive contralateral input from the cochlear nuclei), sites with early-produced neurons correlated with units responding preferentially to high frequency tones and vice versa.  

The normal population of neurons and their distributions within the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus were studied in both Nissl-stained celloidin and frozen sections and in Golgi impregnations from brains of mature cats. According to axial measurements of somata in Nissl-stained material, neurons of the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) were classified by width:length ratio (r) into round (0.80 less than or equal to r less than or equal to 1.0), ovoid (0.65 < r < 0.80), or elongate (r less than or equal to 0.65) types.  

A large number of labeled cells exhibited in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and in the ventral and dorsal cochlear nuclei contralaterally.  

Heavy labelling on the contralateral side was found in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and cochlear nucleus, with less labelling being found ipsilaterally in these nuclei.  

22 experimental cats were then subjected to unilateral lesions of the superior olivary complex or SOC (Groups I and II), the inferior colliculus or IC (Groups III and IV), or the IC plus the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus or DNLL (Groups V and VI).  

The dorsal nucleus of the lateral geniculate projected via the optic radiation to area 17 of the cerebral cortex.  

Some trapezoid body fibers ascend via the contralateral lateral lemniscus to VNLL, DNLL (dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus), and CNIC.  


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