Hypoglossal Nucleus

Heavy P2X(5) receptor immunostaining was observed in the mitral cells of the olfactory bulb; cerebral cortex; globus pallidum, anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus, amygdalohippocampal area of subcortical telencephalon; anterior nuclei, anteroventral nucleus, ventrolateral nucleus of thalamus; supraoptic nucleus, ventromedial nucleus, arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus; substantia nigra of midbrain; pontine nuclei, mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus, motor trigeminal nucleus, ambiguous nucleus, inferior olive, hypoglossal nucleus, dorsal motor vagus nucleus, area postrema of hindbrain; Purkinje cells of cerebellum; and spinal cord.  

We aimed to determine if age-related alterations occurred in the hypoglossal nucleus in the brainstem. Neurons in the hypoglossal nucleus were visualized with the neuronal marker NeuN in young (9-10 months), middle-aged (24-25 months), and old (32-33 months) male F344/BN rats.  

In addition, immunohistochemistry studies demonstrated that perfusion of animals with a NO donor resulted in an increase in the levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in motoneurons, which express the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) in the hypoglossal nucleus.  

These dramatic effects of glutamate on ICMS-evoked genioglossus activity contrast with its weak effects only on right genioglossus activity evoked from the internal capsule or hypoglossal nucleus.  

NPR-C immunoreactivity was detected in several regions, including the periaqueductal gray, oculomotor nucleus, red nucleus and trochlear nucleus of the midbrain; the pontine nucleus, dorsal tegmental nucleus, vestibular nucleus, locus coeruleus, trigeminal motor nucleus, nucleus of the trapezoid body, abducens nucleus and facial nucleus of the pons; and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, hypoglossal nucleus, lateral reticular nucleus, nucleus ambiguus and inferior olivary nucleus of the medulla oblongata. Interestingly, NPR-C immunoreactivity was detected in the cholinergic neurons of the oculomotor nucleus, trochlear nucleus, dorsal tegmental nucleus, motor trigeminal nucleus, facial nucleus, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, nucleus ambiguus and hypoglossal nucleus.  

In the hypoglossal nucleus of wild-type mice, early mixed glycinergic-GABAergic inhibitory transmission becomes mainly glycinergic during postnatal maturation. We performed a morphofunctional study of inhibitory synapses in the developing hypoglossal nucleus of C57BL/6J SPA mice.  

Our data indicate that the expressions of 5-HT(2A) receptors in neurons of the pre-Bötzinger complex, the nucleus ambiguus, and the hypoglossal nucleus were maintained within a relatively narrow range between P2 and P21, with a dip at P3-P4 and a significant reduction only at P12.  

A high density of calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive perikarya was found in the superior colliculus, the dorsal nucleus of the raphe, the trochlear nucleus, the lateral division of the marginal nucleus of the brachium conjunctivum, the motor trigeminal nucleus, the facial nucleus, the pons reticular formation, the retrofacial nucleus, the rostral hypoglossal nucleus, and in the motor dorsal nucleus of the vagus, whereas a high density of fibers containing calcitonin gene-related peptide was observed in the lateral division of the marginal nucleus of the brachium conjunctivum, the parvocellular division of the alaminar spinal trigeminal nucleus, the external cuneate nucleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the laminar spinal trigeminal nucleus, and in the area postrema.  

Immunostaining of human brain sections at the level of the medulla oblongata strengthened these data, showing for the first time a high density of immunoreactive neuronal cell bodies and fibers in the motor hypoglossal nucleus, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the Roller nucleus, the ambiguus nucleus, the inferior olivary complex, and in the external cuneate nucleus.  

With a species-specific probe for budgerigar androgen receptor mRNA, we found that the androgen receptor was expressed in the vocal areas, such as the central nucleus of the lateral nidopallium, the anterior arcopallium, the oval nucleus of the mesopallium, the oval nucleus of the anterior nidopallium and the tracheosyringeal hypoglossal nucleus.  

Immunoreactivities for Kir1.1 and Kir2.3 were observed in the nerve cell bodies and glial cells both in the chemosensory areas [ nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), nucleus raphe obscurus (RO), pre-Bötzinger complex (PreBötC)] and non-chemosensory area [ hypoglossal nucleus (XII), inferior olive nucleus (IO)].  

Immunohistochemical techniques demonstrate a dense concentration of CXCR4 receptors on neurons throughout the DVC and the hypoglossal nucleus.  

Recently, we showed that extra-trigeminal axons, originating from the hypoglossal nucleus, travel with the infraorbital division of the trigeminal nerve (ION), which is known to innervate the rat mystacial pad. hypoglossal nucleus electrical stimulation induced field potentials and monosynaptic responses in the same motor units that persisted even following VII nerve transection, these disappearing after cooling the ION.  

The ChAT immunoreactivity of the hypoglossal nucleus (12N) neurons was not decreased, but Klüver-Barrera staining showed that neuronal density in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) was decreased.  

P2X7 hybridization signals were also observed in the motor neurons of the trigeminal motor nucleus, facial nucleus, hypoglossal nucleus, and the anterior horn of the spinal cord.  

PYY fibers were also concentrated within the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and the hypoglossal nucleus.  

Nicotinamine adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) immunohistochemistry revealed that MHPC reduces NADPH-d/nNOS expression in the hypoglossal nucleus (HN) and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMN) at different time points after PNCI.  

In addition, the differences in the timing and firing frequency of the inspiratory classes of genioglossus motor units indicate that the output of the hypoglossal nucleus may have changed..  

We also confirmed that a large number of ChAT-positive motor neurons in the oculomotor nucleus, facial nucleus, hypoglossal nucleus, and spinal motor neurons contained FGF1.  

Furthermore, the spinal trigeminal nucleus, the lateral reticular nucleus (LRT) and the hypoglossal nucleus demonstrated intense EYFP expression whereas other regions of the medulla were devoid of neuronal EYFP labeling (e.g.  

TDP-43 immunoreactivity was detected in the hypoglossal nucleus in all cases of ALS, all cases of FTLD-MND and some of cases of primary lateral sclerosis (PLS).  

STUDY OBJECTIVES: The medullary hypoglossal nucleus (XII) innervates the genioglossal muscles of the tongue, and opioid-induced alterations in tongue muscle tone contribute to airway obstruction.  

5-HT2 receptor activity in the hypoglossal nucleus and hypercapnia is associated with airway dilation.  

An abundant labeling was found in the hippocampus, amigdala, anterodorsal thalamic nucleus, cortex, and hypoglossal nucleus.  

In each, we looked at four neuraxis levels: hypoglossal nucleus and cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spinal cord.  

Loss of Dnmt3a also led to fewer motor neurons in the hypoglossal nucleus and more fragmented endplates in neuromuscular junctions of the diaphragm muscle.  

Neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV) are more severely affected by axonal injury than most other nerves, such as those of the hypoglossal nucleus. In this study, we compared the expression of fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1), a neurotrophic factor, between the DMNV and the hypoglossal nucleus by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analyses. RT-PCR showed that the level of FGF1 mRNA expression in the DMNV was lower than that in the hypoglossal nucleus (P<0.01). FGF1-positive neurons in large numbers were evenly distributed in the hypoglossal nucleus, whereas FGF1-positive neurons were located in the lateral part of the DMNV. Double immunostaining for FGF1 and choline acetyltransferase demonstrated that 22.7% and 78% of cholinergic neurons were positive for FGF1 in the DMNV and hypoglossal nucleus, respectively.  

RESULTS: Twenty-four hours after surgery, significantly increased c-Fos positive cells were observed in the bilateral medial vestibular nucleus (MVe), bilateral spinal vestibular nucleus (SpVe), contralateral prepositus hypoglossal nucleus (PrH), and contralateral inferior olive nucleus (IO)..  

In control piglets, the immunoreactivity of 5-HT(1A)R was highest in the hypoglossal nucleus (XII), followed by inferior olivary nucleus (ION), nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV), whereas for 5-HT(2A)R, the immunoreactivity was highest in DMNV/NTS and then ION.  

Of the 67 cases of leprosy, 44 (67%) had vacuolar changes of motor neurons either in medulla oblongata (nucleus ambiguous or hypoglossal nucleus) or spinal cord.  

Here we report for the first time the effect of metabolic stress on synaptic input to motor neurons by recording postsynaptic currents in the hypoglossal nucleus.  

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there are age-associated changes in 5HT(2A) receptor expression in the hypoglossal nucleus of male and female rats. The results show that there was significantly greater 5HT(2A) receptor immunoreactivity in the hypoglossal nucleus of female than of male rats. With increasing age, there was an increase in 5HT(2A) receptor immunoreactivity in the hypoglossal nucleus of female rats, whereas no age-associated changes were observed in male rats. Previous studies have shown a reduction in 5HT-dependent respiratory plasticity and an age-associated decrease in 5HT in the hypoglossal nucleus in male but not female rats. Data from the present study suggest that aging male rats fail to compensate adequately for reduced 5HT in the hypoglossal nucleus by upregulating the expression of the 5HT(2A) receptor..  

The brainstem and spinal cord revealed moderate neuronal loss in the substantia nigra, severe neuronal loss with Bunina bodies in the hypoglossal nucleus, and moderate neuronal loss in the cervical anterior horn. The brainstem and spinal cord showed mild neuronal loss without Bunina bodies in the hypoglossal nucleus and cervical anterior horn, accompanied by severe degeneration of the bilateral pyramidal tracts.  

In this study, we investigated the effects of antipsychotic drugs, olanzapine and haloperidol, on the density of the muscarinic M2 receptors in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) and hypoglossal nucleus (HN).  

NPR-A-immunoreactive perikarya were found in the red nucleus and the oculomotor nucleus in the midbrain, the parabrachial nucleus and the locus coeruleus in the pons, and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, the hypoglossal nucleus, the cuneate nucleus, the gracile nucleus, the nucleus ambiguus, the lateral reticular nucleus, the reticular formation, and the inferior olivary nucleus in the medulla oblongata. Double immunostaining revealed NPR-A immunoreactivity in cholinergic neurons of the parabrachial nucleus, the dorsal motor nucleus of vagus, the hypoglossal nucleus, and the nucleus ambiguus.  

Functional recovery of facial muscles following hypoglossal-facial anastomosis (HFA) may be dependent not only on sensory information, relayed via the trigeminal nuclei to the hypoglossal nucleus, but also on extratrigeminal fibers, originating from the hypoglossal nucleus that travel in the infraorbital nerve (ION). The results show that extratrigeminal fibers, originating in the hypoglossal nucleus, travel along the ION. Small labeled neurons (10-15 microm diameter; 10-12 neurons per section), were also found in the hypoglossal nucleus..  

In addition, ACh in the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC) and the hypoglossal nucleus in medullary slice preparations can also be measured.  

Here we used image analysis and immunohistochemistry in weanling male and female rats to quantitate areas and densities of ER alpha and ER beta-positive neurons within medullary regions associated with cardiopulmonary regulation including the hypoglossal nucleus, subnuclei of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus.  

Noteworthy, immunopositivity was present in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and the hypoglossal nucleus.  

Autopsy in one patient disclosed loss of motoneurons in the hypoglossal nucleus and cervical anterior horns, along with loss of sensory neurons in the main trigeminal sensory nucleus and dorsal root ganglia.  

In the hindbrain, IRS-2 staining was detected in the area postrema (AP), medial nucleus of the solitary tract (mNTS), dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMV) and the hypoglossal nucleus (HN).  

NR1 positive neuron densities were significantly greater in females than males in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), commissural nucleus of the NTS and hypoglossal nucleus due to higher counts.  

Biocytin-labelled axon terminals from these areas traveled into the hypoglossal nucleus (XII) and contacted motoneurons.  

V (trigeminal nucleus), VII (facial nucleus), and XII (hypoglossal nucleus), and spinal cord compared to non-transgenic wild-type mice and transgenic mice over-expressing the non-mutated wild-type human SOD1 (tg-SOD1).  

They were activated from the ventrolateral medulla around the ventral respiratory group and the Bötzinger complex and from the dorsomedial medulla around the nucleus tractus solitarii and the hypoglossal nucleus. First, many expiratory-inspiratory phase spanning neurons projected to the hypoglossal nucleus, suggesting that these pontine neurons are important premotor neurons of the hypoglossal motoneurons.  

Other vestibular-related areas such as prepostitus hypoglossal nucleus, gigantocellular reticular nucleus and locus coeruleus of normal experimental rats showed functionally activated c-fos expression at P7.  

NPW-ir fibers were observed in several brain regions, including the lateral septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, dorsomedial and posterior hypothalamus, central amygdaloid nucleus, CA1 field of hippocampus, interpeduncular nucleus, inferior colliculus, lateral parabrachial nucleus, facial nucleus, and hypoglossal nucleus.  

The nuclei examined included the hypoglossal nucleus (XII), dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV), solitary tract nucleus (STN), vestibular nucleus (Ve), cuneate nucleus (Cu), nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (NSTT), principal inferior olivary nucleus (PION), medial inferior olivary nucleus (MION) and dorsal inferior olivary nucleus (DION).  

The major finding was higher levels of expression of the NR2B subunit in the hypoglossal nucleus.  

Her sudden death offered a unique insight into the possible role of delayed neuronal maturation and hypoplasia of the hypoglossal nucleus in representing a likely morphological substrate of sudden death. RESULTS: Hypoplasia and neuronal immaturity of the hypoglossal nucleus were demonstrated, accompanied by hypoplasia of the arcuate nucleus. CONCLUSIONS: Much attention should be paid to the possible role of the hypoglossal nucleus in determining a lethal outcome in infancy through impairment of deglutition and subsequent recurrent episodes of pneumonia, and as a necropsy finding..  

The coexistence of the nuclear TUNEL-immunoreactivity nuclei and cytoplasmic deposition of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified protein in the frontal cortex and hypoglossal nucleus may suggest a possible interrelationship between DNA fragmentation and lipid oxidation in LINCL.  

In the medulla oblongata, labelled cell bodies were numerous in the spinal trigeminal, cuneate and gracilis nuclei whilst rarer in the lateral reticular nucleus, hypoglossal nucleus and raphe nucleus.  

The hypoglossal nucleus showed higher AM expression than that of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve (P < 0.05), solitary tract nucleus (P < 0.05), nucleus intercalatus (P < 0.05), and area postrema (P < 0.05). The arcuate nucleus and inferior olivary nuclear complex showed lower AM expression than the hypoglossal nucleus (P < 0.001), vestibular nuclei (P < 0.01), cuneate and gracile nuclei (P < 0.05), lateral column of the reticular formation (P < 0.05), and nucleus ambiguous (P < 0.05).  

The similarities among primates in MHC and/or muscle fibre composition as well as similar cortical inputs to the hypoglossal nucleus, suggest that we could expect to see similar MHC phenotype for extrinsic tongue muscles in human..  

In contrast, stimulation in the tracheosyringal portion of the hypoglossal nucleus, which innervates the syrinx (the avian vocal organ) but possesses no known projections back into the song system, did not cause any significant changes in the song motor pattern.  

FOS positive neurons were induced by hypoxia and mainly existed in the nucleus of solitary tract, area postrema, hypoglossal nucleus, lateral reticular nucleus, inferior olivary nucleus, nucleus raphe pallidus, facial nucleus, trapezoid nucleus, but in the group of hypoxia plus TMP, the level of FOS immunoreactivity decreased remarkably, compared with the group of hypoxia (P<0.05).  

Cells expressing AP-2 were predominantly differentiated neurons and were abundant in the solitary tract nucleus, hypoglossal nucleus, locus coeruleus, cerebellar molecular layer, superior colliculus, mitral cell layers of the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, and in some divisions of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.  

FasL immunopositive neurons were observed in cerebral cortex, especially in pyramidal neurons of lamina I and V, cerebellar nuclei, diencephalon, and brain stem nuclei involving pontine nucleus, vestibular nucleus, cochlear nucleus, spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve, hypoglossal nucleus, nucleus ambiguous and reticular formation.  

Postnatal development of hyoglossus and styloglossus motoneurons was studied in this investigation of the hypoglossal nucleus. Our findings show separate and distinct locations for hyoglossus and styloglossus motoneurons within the retrusor (dorsal) subdivision of the hypoglossal nucleus for all age groups.  

Glutamatergic, GABAergic, cholinergic, and nitrergic neurons are all found in the PCRt and IRt, but the projections of neurons with these phenotypes to the motor trigeminal (mV) and hypoglossal nucleus (mXII) has not been fully evaluated.  

An autopsy study of one patient showed motor neuron degeneration and axonal loss in the ventral horn of the spinal cord and hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla.  

Also, MS-treated rats showed an enhanced accumulation of glycogen in neurons of the facial nucleus, the nucleus ambiguus, and the hypoglossal nucleus, structures that regulate respiratory activity and airway patency.  

The hypoglossal nucleus of young rats contains vasopressin binding sites and vasopressin can directly excite hypoglossal motoneurons.  

In the rats of hypoxia group, the level of nNOS immunoreactivity was enhanced remarkably in the lateral reticular nucleus, nucleus of trapezoid, hypoglossal nucleus and the facial nucleus compared with the control group (P<0.05).  

Since this hypothalamic nucleus has been previously described as projecting to the hypoglossal nucleus, both, the medial amygdala and the olfactostriatum may mediate vomeronasal influence on tongue-flick behavior..  

The boundaries of the area postrema (AP), dorsal motor vagal nucleus (DMVN), solitary tract nucleus (STN), solitary tract (ST) and hypoglossal nucleus (XII) were defined, all vessels were counted and the values were divided by the areas.  

This part was considered to reflect activity mainly of the hypoglossal nucleus. (iv) At a similar level, we also detected weak and disperse inspiratory activity extending more laterally and caudally than that of the hypoglossal nucleus activity.  

In the CNS of neonatal mice, OSMRbeta was also expressed in the ventral subnucleus of the hypoglossal nucleus, but disappeared at post-natal day (P) 14.  

This study has investigated (1) the distribution of delta opioid receptor (DOR) or mu opioid receptor (MOR) containing elements in the hypoglossal nucleus of the adult cat; and (2) the association of these processes with retrogradely labeled genioglossus muscle motoneurons. At the light microscopic level, retrogradely labeled cells were observed primarily ipsilaterally in ventral and ventrolateral subdivisions of the hypoglossal nucleus. DOR-like immunoreactive processes were apparent at the light microscopic level in the hypoglossal nucleus, but MOR-like immunoreactive processes were not. At the electron microscopic level, DOR-like immunoreactive nerve terminals formed synaptic contacts with retrogradely labeled genioglossus muscle motoneuronal dendrites and perikarya in the hypoglossal nucleus. Few MOR-like immunoreactive terminals were found at the EM level in the hypoglossal nucleus, and none of these terminals contacted retrogradely labeled neuronal profiles from the GG muscle. These studies demonstrate that hypoglossal motoneurons which innervate the major protruder muscle of the tongue, the genioglossus muscle, are modulated by terminals containing DOR, and that enkephalins acting on DOR but not MOR in the hypoglossal nucleus may play a role in the control of tongue protrusion..  

Ipsilateral physostigmine injection into the hypoglossal nucleus (XII nucleus) induced tonic activity, increased the amplitude and duration of the integrated inspiratory bursts of XIIn to 122+/-17% and 117+/-22% of control respectively; but did not alter frequency.  

The present study examined the expression of glutamate, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1 (NMDAR1), GABA, GABAB receptors, glycine receptors, and glutamate receptor subunit 2 (GluR2) in the ventrolateral subnucleus of the solitary tract nucleus, nucleus ambiguus, hypoglossal nucleus, medial accessory olivary nucleus, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, and cuneate nucleus, from P2 to P21 in rats. These features were present but less pronounced in hypoglossal nucleus and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and were absent in the cuneate nucleus.  

Simultaneous recordings from pairs of motoneurones within the same hypoglossal nucleus demonstrated that oscillations were due to their strong electrical coupling and were blocked by the gap junction blocker carbenoxolone.  

In the hypoglossal nucleus, GABA and glycine mediate inhibition at separate or mixed synapses containing glycine receptors (GlyRs) and/or GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs). We have determined the sequential process of inhibitory synapse maturation in the hypoglossal nucleus in vivo.  

Histochemical observations indicated the presence of M1, M2 and M5 subtypes of muscarinic receptors in the neonatal hypoglossal nucleus.  

We employed a double injury model (axotomy along with hypoxia) to determine how nerve injury and hypoxic insult would affect the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in the hypoglossal nucleus (HN) and nucleus ambiguus (NA).  

Neuropathological examination disclosed not only neuronal loss with gliosis in the hypoglossal nucleus and anterior horns of the spinal cord, but also loss of Betz cells and degeneration of the pyramidal tract.  

Immunoreactive cell bodies were found in the reticular formation of the medulla oblongata (in which we observed the highest density of immunoreactive cell bodies) and the pons, the solitary nucleus, the hypoglossal nucleus, the medial and spinal vestibular nuclei, the lateral cuneate nucleus, the nucleus prepositus, the central gray of the pons and mesencephalon, the central and pericentral nuclei of the inferior colliculus, the superior colliculus, ventral to the superior olive and in the midline region of the pons and mesencephalon.  

Intracellular recordings in the hypoglossal nucleus revealed that all changes in hypoglossal discharge were due to neuronal depolarization.  

In 108 adult Wistar rats we have compared the time course and intensity of the axotomy reaction in the hypoglossal nucleus after (1) resection of the nerve (permanent axotomy), (2) one-time electric stimulation (intact nerve, brief transient electric disturbance), and (3) colchicine block of transport (intact nerve, prolonged transient loss of trophic factors).  

We concluded that: 1) the somatostatin is an important foetal breathing-inhibitor, but it becomes important for the physiological control of respiration immediately after delivery; 2) functional alterations of the hypoglossal nucleus can occur in both sudden perinatal and infant deaths and contribute to the induction of both fatal breathing movements in foetuses and abnormal ventilatory control in infants leading to irreversible apneic phenomena..  

We examined its expression in the hypoglossal nucleus after unilateral hypoglossal nerve transection in mice by fluorescent in situ hybridization.  

Protein kinase C activity within the hypoglossal nucleus was increased after long-term intermittent hypoxia.  

Immunohistochemistry of GLYT1 and -2 shows labeling throughout the hypoglossal nucleus.  

rMSCs transplanted into the lateral ventricles of the rat brain migrated to the avulsed hypoglossal nucleus, where the expression of chemokines, stromal-cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), and fractalkine was observed to be increased.  

For example, the Forum recognized that the hypoglossal nucleus had been incorrectly identified as the nucleus intermedius in the Karten and Hodos (1967) pigeon brain atlas, and what was identified as the hypoglossal nucleus in that atlas should instead be called the supraspinal nucleus.  

Galectin-1 mRNA was predominantly observed in the cell bodies of neurons such as oculomotor nucleus (III), trochlear nucleus (IV), trigeminal motor nucleus (V), abducens nucleus (VI), facial nucleus (VII), hypoglossal nucleus (XII), red nucleus, and locus ceruleus.  

A significant increase in 5-HT1A receptor binding density was observed across infancy in the hypoglossal nucleus (regression slope coefficient = 0.008 +/- 0.002, P = 0.02), and a marginally significant increase was observed in the raphé obscurus (regression slope coefficient = 0.061 +/- 0.026 [ mean +/- SEM], P = 0.05). With the exception of the hypoglossal nucleus, where 5-HT1A receptor binding increases while SERT binding remains stable, the medullary 5-HT markers analyzed in the study are essentially "in place" at birth.  

In contrast, the wobbler hypoglossal nucleus contained neither vacuolated nor NADPH-d reactive motoneurones.  

Strong expression was also seen in several cranial motor nuclei, including the nucleus of ambiguus, hypoglossal nucleus, facial nucleus and dorsal vagus motor nucleus.  

In the brainstem and cerebellum, PARP-immunoreactive astrocytes were observed in the medullary and pontine reticular formation, hypoglossal nucleus, vestibular nucleus, cochlear nucleus and cerebellar nuclei.  

Oncostatin M (OSM) is a member of the interleukin-6 family of cytokines, and we have reported previously that the murine OSM receptor beta subunit (OSMR) was expressed in some neurons in the adult trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and in the perineonatal hypoglossal nucleus.  

In the ventral respiratory group and the hypoglossal nucleus (XII) of acutely isolated brainstem slices, we analyzed fluorescently labeled astrocytes obtained from TgN(GFAP-EGFP) transgenic mice with the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique.  

Whereas OVAR-induced Fos-ir neurons were also first observed in vestibular-related brain areas, such as the prepositus hypoglossal nucleus, gigantocellular reticular nucleus, and locus coeruleus, of normal experimental rats at P7, those in the inferior olive were observed only from P14 onward.  

Colocalization of immunoreactivities for gephyrin and glycine receptor subunits was detected in the dorsal and ventral horns of the spinal cord, the hypoglossal nucleus and the medial vestibular nucleus of the medulla.  

At the light microscopic level, labeled cells were observed primarily ipsilaterally in ventral and ventrolateral subdivisions of the hypoglossal nucleus.  

In the brainstem of symptomatic SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice, significantly increased immunoreactivity for MnSOD was observed in abducens nucleus, facial nucleus, dorsal motor nucleus of vagus, hypoglossal nucleus, medullary and pontine reticular formation, superior and inferior olivary nucleus, and cochlear nucleus.  

The neuropathological examination revealed loss of neurons in the hypoglossal nucleus and anterior horns of the cervical spinal cord with microvacuolation and dot-like ubiquitin-positive deposits in the frontoparietotemporal cortex, but no changes suggestive of Alzheimer's, Pick's or Lewy body disease.  

Whilst 5-HT has a direct excitatory action on hypoglossal motoneurones as a result of activation of 5-HT2 receptors, microinjection of 5-HT2 antagonists into the hypoglossal nucleus reduces motor activity to a much lesser extent compared to the suppression observed during sleep suggesting other transmitters co-localised in caudal raphe neurones may also be involved.  

Clf deletion also affected brainstem motor nuclei in a regionally specific manner; the number of motoneurons in the facial but not hypoglossal nucleus was significantly reduced.  

the border zone between the hypoglossal nucleus and the surrounding reticular formation.  

Hsp70 immunoreactivity was observed in the cytoplasm of some neurons in the hypoglossal nucleus (XII), the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagal nerve (X), the lateral cuneate nucleus (Cun), and the inferior olive (Oli).  

To determine whether changes were limited to the PBC, the present study aimed at examining the expression of CO in a number of brain stem nuclei, with or without known respiratory functions from P0 to P21 in rats: the ventrolateral subnucleus of the solitary tract nucleus, nucleus ambiguus, hypoglossal nucleus, nucleus raphe obscurus, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve, medial accessory olivary nucleus, spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve, and medial vestibular nucleus (MVe).  

The in vivo actions of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) on synaptogenesis in the hypoglossal nucleus were investigated in transgenic mice that overexpress IGF-I in the brain postnatally and in normal nontransgenic littermate controls. In a previous study using these mice, we found that IGF-I increases the total volume of the hypoglossal nucleus by increasing the volume of neuropil rather than by increasing total neuron number; therefore, the progressive and regressive phases of synaptogenesis could be evaluated without the confounding effects of altered neuron number. The volume of the hypoglossal nucleus was significantly increased by 28% to 59% in transgenic mice after postnatal day (P) 7, whereas the total number of hypoglossal neurons did not differ significantly from controls.  

[ 125I]-BHSP binding was localised to the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), hypoglossal nucleus and inferior olivary complex, whereas [ 125I]-neurokinin A and [ 3H]-senktide binding were confined to the NTS.  

The levels of c-FOS mRNA immediately following running were high in the cortex, caudate-putamen, lateral septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, dorsal and medial thalamus, hypothalamus, pontine nuclei, locus coeruleus and hypoglossal nucleus.  

Its gene expression was first observed in large neurons of the hypoglossal nucleus at 14.5 days postcoitum, which was sustained until neonatal mice. OSMRbeta mRNA and protein were mainly localized in the ventral subnucleus of the developing hypoglossal nucleus.  

Synaptological characteristics of synapses between axonal boutons of the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (Vme) neurons and the hypoglossal nucleus (XII) motoneurons (MNs) were studied using biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) anterograde labeling combined with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) retrograde transport in the rat.  

In one patient, neuropathology revealed neuron atrophy and loss in the frontotemporal region, the anterior horns, and the hypoglossal nucleus.  

In the medulla oblongata, immunoreactive cell bodies were observed in the laminar spinal trigeminal nucleus and in the lateral tegmental field; the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus; the prepositus hypoglossal nucleus; the medial nucleus of the solitary tract; the rostral division of the cuneate nucleus, and close to the parvocellular division of the alaminar spinal trigeminal nucleus.  

Transverse 400- microm slices were prepared from the caudal medulla of mice of postnatal day 3-8, which contained the hypoglossal nucleus receiving excitatory synaptic input from the ventral respiratory group. Stimulus-evoked excitation of neurons propagating from the ventral respiratory group to the hypoglossal nucleus peaked after 7.2+/-0.6 ms ( n=6). Mean changes of fluorescence in the hypoglossal nucleus were -2.1+/-0.5 x 10(-3) (DeltaI/I).  

We used cross-correlation analysis of the rhythmic multiunit discharges recorded from hypoglossal nerve rootlets, hypoglossal nucleus neurones and PBC neurones to investigate the connections between these groups.  

Intensely co-localized immunoreactivity for the light subunit of neurofilaments and of beta-amyloid was seen 3 days after the rotational trauma axons of in the subcortical white matter and in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus as well as in neurons of the hypoglossal nucleus.  

Histologic examination of the caudal brainstem in the MD rat at this age showed extensive dysmyelination and downregulation of NMDA and to a lesser extent GABA(A) receptors on neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius, hypoglossal nucleus, and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus.  

Using in situ hybridization, we found PR mRNA-containing cells widely distributed throughout the brainstem of ovariectomized, estradiol-treated Sprague-Dawley rats, with high expression in regions including the medial vestibular nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract, substantia nigra (compact part), ventral tegmental area, hypoglossal nucleus, locus coeruleus, Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum and inferior olivary complex.  

The aim of the present study was to identify and characterize, using neuroanatomical and neurophysiological approaches, the pathways involved in the transmission of the olfactory information to the hypoglossal nucleus (XIIn). The neuroanatomical findings provided the initial demonstration that olfactory information is conveyed from the olfactory bulb to the hypoglossal nucleus via the interpeduncular nucleus (IPn) by both fast disynaptic and different polysynaptic pathways.  

In addition to the nuclei mentioned above, the highest densities of such immunoreactive fibers were located in the spinal trigeminal nucleus, the lateral reticular nucleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the superior colliculus, the substantia nigra, the nucleus ambiguus, the gracile nucleus, the cuneate nucleus, the motor hypoglossal nucleus, the medial and superior vestibular nuclei, the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi and the interpeduncular nucleus.  

Microinjection of acetylcholine into the PIA elicited muscle atonia and simultaneously produced a significant increase in both glycine and GABA release in both the hypoglossal nucleus and the lumbar ventral horn. Glycine release increased by 74% in the hypoglossal nucleus and 50% in the spinal cord. GABA release increased by 31% in the hypoglossal nucleus and 64% in the spinal cord during atonia induced by cholinergic stimulation of the PIA. As with cholinergic stimulation, 300 msec train electrical stimulation of the PIA elicited a significant increase in glycine release in the hypoglossal nucleus and ventral horn. GABA release was significantly increased in the hypoglossal nucleus but not in the spinal cord during electrical stimulation of the PIA.  

By way of the representative application of the recommended investigation procedure to 100 microm serial sections through the patient's brain stem stained for lipofuscin pigment and Nissl material, we observed neuronal loss together with astrogliosis in nearly all of the ingestion-related lower brain stem nuclei (motor, principal and spinal trigeminal nuclei; facial nucleus; parvocellular reticular nucleus; ambiguous nucleus, motor nucleus of the dorsal glossopharyngeal and vagal area; gelatinous, medial, parvocellular and pigmented solitary nuclei; hypoglossal nucleus).  

The avian vocal organ, or syrinx, is innervated by motor neurons (MNs) in the tracheosyringeal part of the hypoglossal nucleus (XIIts) that receive their synaptic input from medullary respiratory areas and telencephalic song control areas.  

To obtain information on the role of the p38 MAP kinase in the neurons and glial cells after axotomy, we investigated changes of expression of p38 MAP kinase, MAP kinase kinase (MKK) 3, MKK4, MKK6 and ATF-2 in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve and the hypoglossal nucleus following axotomy in rats using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical techniques.  

Ultrastructural features of synaptic connection from the dorsal PCRt neurons to the motoneurons of the hypoglossal nucleus (XII) were examined at both the light and electron microscopic levels in rats.  

Many of the brainstem nuclei, notably the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, hypoglossal nucleus, trigeminal nucleus and inferior olive were all labelled with gephyrin.  

PrP(Sc) deposits in the tongue were associated with individual axons, and the initial appearance of TME in the brain stem was found in the hypoglossal nucleus at 2 weeks postinfection. At later time points, PrP(Sc) was localized to brain cell groups that directly project to the hypoglossal nucleus, indicating the transneuronal spread of TME. These results demonstrate that TME can replicate in both the tongue and regional lymph nodes but indicate that the faster route of brain invasion is via retrograde axonal transport within the hypoglossal nerve to the hypoglossal nucleus.  

These observations suggest that coactivation of lingual muscles can be achieved, at least in part, through divergent projections of first-order interneurons to anatomically and functionally distinct pools of lingual motoneurons in the hypoglossal nucleus..  

All drugs were injected unilaterally into the hypoglossal nucleus. There is no evidence for serotonin 7 activity in the hypoglossal nucleus. This characterization of serotonin receptor subtypes in the hypoglossal nucleus provides a focus for the development of pharmacotherapies for sleep apnea..  

Urocortin-immunoreactive nerve cells were also observed in the motor nuclei of the trigeminal and facial nerves and in the hypoglossal nucleus.  

No terminals were found in the hypoglossal nucleus itself; there were, however, terminals in the immediately bordering reticular formation..  

In the rat, genioglossus muscle motoneurons have been reported in the lateral and centrolateral subnuclei of the ventral hypoglossal nucleus. In so doing we add new data concerning the myotopic organization of the hypoglossal nucleus and further clarify the functional organization of the hypoglossal-tongue complex into protrusor and retrusor subdivisions..  

Neurons with cytoplasmic staining were identified in regions connected to the hypoglossal nucleus (nucleus tractus solitarius, paramedian and gigantocellular reticular nuclei).  

Chickens, but not quail, showed strong immunoreactivity in the tracheosyringeal division of the hypoglossal nucleus, whereas quail, but not chickens, possessed strong immunoreactivity in a region of the ventrolateral medulla.  

The anterograde projections of the motorcortical tongue area to the hypoglossal nucleus and neighbouring structures were studied in the rhesus monkey, squirrel monkey, saddle-back tamarin and tree shrew. Direct projections into the hypoglossal nucleus were only found in the rhesus monkey and squirrel monkey. All four species, however, showed a direct projection into the dorsal and parvocellular reticular formation which in turn projects into the hypoglossal nucleus.  

Here we examined the expression of NMDA receptor subunits in the mouse hypoglossal nucleus from embryonic day 13 (E13) through postnatal day 21 (P21). Compared with other brainstem regions, early onset of GluRepsilon1 (NR2A) mRNA expression was conspicuous to the embryonic hypoglossal nucleus.  

This hypothesis was tested by immunohistochemical examination of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in neurons of the hypoglossal nucleus (HGN) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMV) one day to ten weeks after unilateral hypoglossal nerve crush or avulsion combined with vagus nerve crush in adult rats, and also in neurons of the anterior horn (AH) one week after unilateral sciatic nerve crush or avulsion.  

Fourth, because the lateral posterior hypothalamic nucleus projects to the hypoglossal nucleus, the motor center controlling the tongue musculature, this projection could constitute a pathway for chemosensory information to influence tongue-flicking behavior.  

Those neuroblasts that remain close to the median sulcus will form the hypoglossal nucleus. The medial prominence corresponded to the hypoglossal nucleus, which showed a marked increase in the number of large neurons; the intermediate prominence corresponded to the DMVN whose large neurons were reduced and were recognizable mainly at the level of the medial fringe; the lateral prominence corresponded to the solitary nucleus. We suggest that in SIDS cases the hypocellularity of the MVN and the increased number of neurons of the hypoglossal nucleus are intimately related, indicating a congenital alteration due to incomplete migration of the vagal neuroblasts with abnormality of the autonomic cardio-respiratory control..  

Sexual dimorphisms are present throughout the zebra finch song system, from forebrain centers to the tracheosyringeal portion of the hypoglossal nucleus (nXIIts) to the muscles of the syrinx (vocal organ).  

ambiguus, hypoglossal nucleus) and ventral horn of the spinal cord (cervical, thoracic and lumbar region).  

The facial nucleus, the prepositus hypoglossal nucleus, and the sympathetic ganglia also showed P2X(3) immunoreactivity, even though these are not sensory associated.  

In this paper, we report neuronal changes of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the hypoglossal nucleus (HN) in the brain stem.  

To characterize 5-HT3 receptor activity within a representative UAWD nucleus, we performed acute microinjections of selective 5-HT3 drugs, 1-(m-Chlorophenyl)-biguanide HCl, an agonist, and ondansetron, an antagonist, into a major population of UADMn's, the hypoglossal nucleus (XII), in anesthetized, paralyzed and mechanically-ventilated rats.  

Immunoreactive elements were mainly localized to the spinal trigeminal, cuneate, solitary, vestibular, and cochlear sensory nuclei, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve, ventral grey column, hypoglossal nucleus, dorsal and ventrolateral medullary reticular formation, pontine subventricular grey and locus coeruleus, lateral regions of the rostral pontine tegmentum, tectal plate, trochlear nucleus, dorsal and median raphe nuclei, caudal and rostral linear nuclei, cuneiform nucleus, and substantia nigra.  

Because these neurons have synaptic contact with both afferent inputs and motor neurons and exhibit a true central activity, they appear to constitute the swallowing central pattern generator.We studied the viscerotopic organization of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), the nucleus ambiguus (NA), the dorsal motor nucleus (DMN), and the hypoglossal nucleus (XII) using cholera toxin horseradish peroxidase (CT-HRP), a sensitive antegrade and retrograde tracer that effectively labels afferent terminal fields within the NTS as well as swallowing motor neurons and their dendritic fields within the NA, DMN, and XII.  

Fluorescence changes corresponding to the spontaneous inspiratory burst activity were detected in the hypoglossal nucleus and VLM in slice preparations, and in a limited area extending rostrocaudally in the VLM of the brain stem-spinal cord preparation.  

The various changes in lick dynamics may be due to the detrimental effects of 3AP at the IO, and possibly at the hypoglossal nucleus and other sites..  

We examined intracellular pH (pH(i)) regulation in the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), a CO(2)-sensitive site, and the hypoglossal nucleus, a nonchemosensitive site, during development (postnatal days 2-18) in rats. In the hypoglossal nucleus, pH(i) recovered in young animals, but as animal age increased, the slope of pH(i) recovery diminished. In animals older than postnatal day 11, the pH(i) responses to hypercapnia were identical in the hypoglossal nucleus and the RTN, but hypoglossal nucleus and RTN neurons could regulate pH(i) during intracellular acidification at constant pH(o) at all ages. Hence, pH(i) regulation during acidosis is more effective in the hypoglossal nucleus in younger animals, possibly as a requirement of development, but in older juvenile animals (older than postnatal day 11), pH(i) regulation is relatively poor in chemosensitive (RTN) and nonchemosensitive nuclei (hypoglossal nucleus)..  

Using immunohistochemistry we studied the distribution of GABA(A) and glycine receptor alpha1 subunits in the rat hypoglossal nucleus during postnatal development.  

A direct projection from rat mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (Vme) neurons to the hypoglossal nucleus (XII) motoneurons was studied using a double labeling method of anterogradely biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) tracing combined with retrogradely horseradish peroxidase (HRP) transport at both light and electron microscopic levels.  

Neuronal activity in the central vestibular complex (VC), as monitored with Fos immunocytochemistry, revealed an asymmetric pattern of Fos labeling in the medial, inferior and superior vestibular nuclei and the prepositus hypoglossal nucleus.  

Quantitative RT-PCR revealed the similarity of P2X(2) mRNA expression between the DMV and superior cervical ganglion (SCG) but not in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and hypoglossal nucleus (XII).  

We compared release in the ventral horn with that in the hypoglossal nucleus to determine whether the mechanism of muscle tone suppression differs in these nuclei as has been hypothesized. Electrical stimulation and cholinergic agonist injection into the mesopontine reticular formation produced a suppression of tone in the postural and respiratory muscles and simultaneously caused a significant reduction of norepinephrine and serotonin release of similar magnitude in both hypoglossal nucleus and spinal cord.  

Intense AR mRNA expression was also observed in neurons within two other areas that may be involved in vocalization, the medial preoptic area and the hypoglossal nucleus.  

The present results have shown that the number of NADPH-d/NOS-positive [ NADPH-d/NOS(1)] neurons in the hypoglossal nucleus (HN) peaked at 14 days after axotomy, while that in dorsal motor nucleus of vagus (DMN) and nucleus ambiguus (NA) was progressively increased up to 60 days.  

For AII, staining occurred in both the neurons and astrocytes in the undamaged hypoglossal nucleus. As to the function of AII in the hypoglossal nucleus, the data do not support AII as a neurotransmitter in the hypoglossal nucleus.  

Retrograde labeling of the RLN showed that the reinnervating axons originated only in the hypoglossal nucleus.  

Among those lateral hypothalamus neurons that project to the hypoglossal nucleus some were determined to be hypocretin immunoreactive and were located amongst the single-labeled hypocretinergic neurons.  

The most substantial decrease in binding (75%-85%) between the fetal and infant periods occurred in the pontine and medullary reticular formation and hypoglossal nucleus.  

To address the question of whether there is differential expression of the GluR2 subunit in motoneurons, we compared in normal adult rats expression of GluR2 mRNA and protein within two cranial motor nuclei that are either resistant (III; oculomotor nucleus) or vulnerable (XII; hypoglossal nucleus) to degeneration in ALS.  

A population of ventral horn neurons in the spinal cord, hypoglossal nucleus, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, facial motor nucleus, nucleus ambiguus, abducens nucleus and trigeminal motor nucleus exhibited irU-II of varying intensities.  

There is abundant evidence indicating that the neural control of protrusive tongue movement by motoneurons in the ventral hypoglossal nucleus is modulated by respiratory neurons that control inspiratory drive. There is evidence, however, suggesting that functional segregation of respiration and swallowing within the brainstem is reflected in somatotopy within the hypoglossal nucleus.  

Results of experimental degeneration following the severance of the hypoglossal nerve showed the presence of degenerating neuronal elements both in the hypoglossal nucleus and the SCG.  

In the medulla, 5-HT(2C) receptor mRNA is at high levels in many nuclei including the hypoglossal nucleus, the gigantocellular reticular nucleus alpha and the parvocellular reticular nucleus alpha, the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal tract, the facial, and the dorsal medullary reticular field. 5-HT(2A) receptor is expressed at high levels in some nuclei such as the hypoglossal nucleus, the intercalate nucleus, the inferior olive and the lateral reticular nucleus.  

Injections of retrograde tracers into the facial nucleus consistently labeled neurons in the hypoglossal nucleus. Reverse experiments - injections of anterograde tracers into the hypoglossal nucleus - labeled fine varicose nerve fiber terminals in the facial nucleus.  

Using in situ hybridization histochemistry, the gene expression for six isoforms of ARF was examined during normal development of rats and in the hypoglossal nucleus following its axotomy. The expression levels of ARF-2 and -4 mRNAs in affected hypoglossal nucleus increased after 24 h up to 7 days following axotomy of the hypoglossal nerve, while no such changes were seen in the expression levels for the other ARFs.  

The present results also suggest a faster recovery of basal levels of immunoreactivity for caudally localised groups of motoneurons which could reflect a caudo-rostral sequential functional recovery in the hypoglossal nucleus..  

Accordingly, olfactory and vomeronasal information should reach motor centers that control the tongue musculature, namely, the hypoglossal nucleus (XIIN); however, virtually nothing is known about the circuits involved.  

In contrast, no direct connection between the facial and hypoglossal nucleus on the level of the brain stem has been detected until now. RESULTS: Retrograde tracer injections into the facial nucleus consistently labeled small neurons in the hypoglossal nucleus. In reverse experiments the injection of anterograde tracers into the hypoglossal nucleus labeled fine caliber varicose nerve fibers, but no somata in the facial nucleus. Synchronous injections of different tracers into the facial and hypoglossal nucleus produced a small, but constant number of double-labeled cells in the parvocellular reticular formation. CONCLUSIONS: Both, hypoglossal interneurons projecting to the facial nucleus and neurons of the parvocellular reticular formation double-projecting to the facial and hypoglossal nucleus might play an important role in coordinated orofacial movements.  

Iontophoretic injection of 10% biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) unilaterally into the Vsup anterogradely labeled axons and axon terminals bilaterally in the hypoglossal nucleus (XII) as well as other regions of the brainstem. These data suggest that the supratrigeminal region, as one of the premotor neuronal pools of the hypoglossal nucleus, may coordinate and modulate the activity of tongue muscles during oral motor behaviors..  

Serotonin immunoreactivity within the hypoglossal nucleus was not different between H and CRL/S rats.  

Fos expression occurred in the medial vestibular nucleus contralateral to the UL side (contra-MVe) and the prepositus hypoglossal nucleus ipsilateral to the UL side (ipsi-PrH), whereas Fos expression was never seen after UL in floccular-intact rats.  

hypoglossal nucleus was negative for S100A6.  

AR-immunoreactive (ir) neurons were found, in descending order of abundance, in the nucleus ambiguus, hypoglossal nucleus, and the facial and trigeminal motor nuclei of both males and females of intact and gonadectomized plus TP rats. In contrast, AR-ir neurons were either restricted to a specific area of the hypoglossal nucleus, or randomly distributed in the facial and trigeminal motor nuclei.  

This hypothesis was tested by avulsing the hypoglossal nerve of adult rats and perfusing either TGF-beta 2 or vehicle adjacent to the hypoglossal nucleus.  

High levels of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1 immunoreactivity were present in the dorsal motor nucleus of vagus, hypoglossal nucleus and nucleus ambiguus.  

It is generally believed that the supranuclear innervation of the hypoglossal nucleus is bilateral and symmetrical.  

Following hypoglossal nerve transection, the microglia of the rat hypoglossal nucleus expressed protein kinase CK2 beta subunit immunoreactivity. Electron microscopic observations on the hypoglossal nucleus revealed microglia-neuronal contact within 3 hours of nerve injury, and by day 3 all the injured neurones were in contact with microglial cells.  

Moderate staining was observed in the hypoglossal nucleus, cuneate nucleus, inferior olive, prepositus hypoglossi, rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), and locus coeruleus.  

Intramuscular injection of retargeted virus into mouse tongues resulted in selective gene transfer to the neurons of the hypoglossal nucleus, where no pathological changes were observed.  

At autopsy, severe bilateral neuronal loss and gliosis restricted to the pallidum, the subthalamic nucleus, the substantia nigra, and the hypoglossal nucleus were noted, accounting for the diagnosis of PLNA with lower motor neuron involvement.  

The ratios of HRP-positive neurones in the right hypoglossal nucleus (treated side)/left hypoglossal nucleus (intact side) was 0 in the 5mm-resected group, 53% in the chitin-grafted group, 88% in the ganglioside (0.2 microg)-injected group, 90% in the ganglioside (2 microg)-injected group, 91% in the chitin with ganglioside (0.2mg)-injected group, 91% in the chitin with ganglioside (2 microg)-injected group and 85% in the autograft group, respectively.  

Additional time points in the retina and hypoglossal nucleus (days 1, 2, and 14) and cerebral cortex (day 2) injury models also showed the same cell type pattern for the CD44-IR.  

With advancing postnatal age, NR1 expression increased in the nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS), whereas it decreased in the hypoglossal nucleus.  

Direct activation of upper airway (UA) motor neurons in the hypoglossal nucleus by a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), paroxetine hydrochloride, may increase genioglossal electromyographic (EMG) activity (EMGgg) in a manner resistant to mechanoreflex inhibition.  

Therefore, the effects of sex and adult androgen manipulation on the neuromuscular end of the song control system (tracheosyringeal portion of the hypoglossal nucleus, nXIIts, and the syrinx, or vocal organ) were investigated.  

In addition, restraint stress induced significant decreases in GAL receptor density in SHR in regions such as the lateral parabrachial nucleus (-43%; 5 days of restraint) and hypoglossal nucleus ( approximately -18% for entire restraint period) (P<0.05).  

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) immunohistochemistry were carried out to detect the neuronal NADPH-d/NOS expression in the hypoglossal nucleus (HN).  

Serotonergic innervation of the hypoglossal nucleus (nXII) was disrupted in neonatal rats by intra-cisternal injection of the serotonergic neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT), and 5-HT(1A) receptor mRNA levels in nXII from these rats were assayed at postnatal day 21.  

A very similar correlation between the distance of the rostral margin of hypoglossal triangle and localization of the rostral pole of hypoglossal nucleus was found.  

After injection of horseradish peroxidase into the whiskerpad we counted the retrogradely labelled neurons in the hypoglossal nucleus 7-112 days after operation to quantify the axonal reinnervation.  

In all three species, ipsilateral projections of RA to the medulla included the tracheosyringeal part of the hypoglossal nucleus (XIIts), that innervates the syrinx, the bird's vocal organ, the suprahypoglossal area (SH), and two respiratory-related nuclei, retroambigualis (RAm) and parambigualis (PAm; Reinke and Wild [ 1998] J Comp Neurol 391:147-163).  

The expression of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits in the motoneuronal pools of the hypoglossal nucleus was studied using specific antibodies against subunits of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA), kainate and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtypes. The highest numbers of intensely immunolabelled motoneurons were found in the dorsal tier and caudoventromedial part of the hypoglossal nucleus with all antibodies except that against the GluR1 AMPA subunit. These results show that the hypoglossal nucleus contains five heterogeneous pools of motoneurons which innervate functionally defined groups of tongue muscles.  

Using immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis, examination of the medulla of CO-exposed fetuses revealed a significant decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity (TH-IR) in the nucleus tractus solitarius, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV), area postrema, intermediate reticular nucleus, and the ventrolateral medulla (VLM), and a significant increase in choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactivity (ChAT-IR) in the DMV and hypoglossal nucleus compared with controls.  

The brain stem hypoglossal nucleus (HN) is the center of nerves innervating the upper respiratory tract and is related to control of mastication, deglutition, speech and respiration.  

We used RT-PCR in mice to analyze the glutamate receptor subunit composition of the pre-Bötzinger complex, the hypoglossal nucleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, and the inferior olive.  

Cholera toxin horseradish peroxidase (CT-HRP), a sensitive antegrade and retrograde tracer, is effective at labeling swallowing motoneurons and their dendritic fields within the nucleus ambiguus (NA), nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve, and hypoglossal nucleus.  

In the medulla, they were observed in the medullary reticular formation, hypoglossal nucleus, vestibular nucleus, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and nucleus ambiguus.  

Strongly immunoreactive neurons were present in the oculomotor nucleus and ruber nucleus in the midbrain, the facial nucleus in the pons, the dorsal vagal nucleus and hypoglossal nucleus in the medulla oblongata and in the anterior horn as well as intermediolateral zone of the spinal cord.  

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