Endocrinological disturbances related to the hypothalamus-hypophysis axis were evident in 6/8 patients evaluated.  

The rudiment of the hypothalamic infundibulum and neurohypophysis formed at CS 15, as a thickening of the posterior wall of the diencephalon. Transorientation of the positions of brain components, including the rudiment of the hypophysis, occurred at CS 20-23. From CS 20 to 23, the RP epithelium formed the structural-functional units of the adenohypophysis, i.e., the epithelial cords, by invagination..  

Fragments of ewe hypophysis and lactating rabbit mammary gland incubated in vitro in the presence of pectic acid secreted more PRL and caseins compared to the controls. However, it is not known whether pectic acid directly stimulates PRL secretion in pituitary or interference of factors from hypophysis is required for this process. This result suggested that pectic acid is a non-toxic agent that could directly stimulate PRL secretion in pituitary cells without any interference of hypophysis..  

No cat had an empty sella but 11 dogs (3%) had a small or missing hypophysis.  

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the direct action of desmopressin (agonist of vasopressin) on the hypophysis and the three zones of the adrenal cortex in patients with different forms of hypercortisolism.  

Vasopressin, also called antidiuretic hormone, is a 9 amino-acid peptide, synthesized from a precursor containing neurophysin II, by neurones from the supra-optic and peri-ventricular nuclei, and then stored in the posterior hypophysis. Both its synthesis and release from hypophysis vesicles depend on variations in plasma osmolality, volaemia, and arterial blood pressure.  

Nonfunctional hypophysis adenomas presented a higher PCNA, PTTG-1, and PTEN expression than functional ones. There was no difference between single-hormone-producing hypophysis adenomas or multiple-hormone-producing ones.  

Inflammatory lesions of the hypophysis account for 0.5% of all symptomatic diseases of the pituitary, which include lymphocytic hypophysitis, granulomatous hypophysitis with or without specific etiology and pituitary abscess.  

Interleukine-1- and -2 were not detected in the hypophysis of experimental animals of all groups (intact, under acoustic stress, under delta-sleep inducing peptide application).  

In fact, the last decade has been rich in illustrating the possible roles played by apelin in human physiology, namely as a regulating peptide of cardiovascular, hypothalamus-hypophysis, gastrointestinal, and immune systems.  

In addition, hypophysis is reduced size..  

After rats were treated by 63Ni-NiCl2 for 15 days, in 22 tissues tested, the contents of 63Ni-NiCl2 in hair, hypothalamus, hypophysis, pancreas, small and large intestines were higher, and the residua of 63Ni-NiCl2 was not discovered in liver, kidney and heart.  

Subdural effusion, diffuse dural enhancement, dilatation of epidural veins, and increased height of hypophysis are cranial magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in SIH.  

Notably, the first embryonic signal is detected in the hypophysis, the founder cell of the root stem-cell system.  

Somatostatin (SS) and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) are synthesized and secreted by the hypothalamus, which can control the synthesis and secretion of the growth hormone (GH) from the hypophysis as well as regulate the GH concentrations in animals and humans.  

However, as in other vertebrates, TRH neurons were abundant in the hypothalamic nuclei that presumably project to the median eminence and the neural lobe of the hypophysis. In this respect, the virtual lack in urodeles of TRH innervation of the intermediate lobe of the hypophysis clearly contrasts with the innervation found in anurans.  

For a long time the endocrine brain was considered to the hypothalamus and to its special relationships with the hypophysis.  

Maximum linear sizes of pineal gland and hypophysis cerebri in sagittal, axial and coronar projection were measured in all events; volumes of the organs were calculated on the formula of a ball. The normative factors of the volume of pineal gland and hypophysis cerebri for 8 age groups are determined.  

Although patients showed the wide fluctuation of semen values frequently observed at the end of puberty, the hypophysis-gonadal axis hormones were in the normal range in all adolescents.  

hypophysis hormonal deficiencies may occur.  

The estrogen antagonist ICI182-780 counteracted the hypophysis driven effects.  

Growth hormone (GH) is a polypeptide hormone, secreted by somatotropic cells of the anterior part of the hypophysis.  

The hypophysis is not obligatory after day 50 nor the ovaries after day 55 to maintain pregnancy in ewes.  

The mechanisms that underlie these changes in testicular function are unknown and could involve changes in the hypophysis-gonad axis. Integrated analysis of hormonal changes in rats subjected to CHH and the body dehydration that occurs in HH allows us to conclude that the effects of CHH on spermatogenesis may be partially related to changes in the hypophysis-gonad hormonal axis..  

In the present study, we applied the method to brain tissues, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hypophysis and hypothalamus.  

The magnetic resonance of hypophysis showed absence of the pituitary hyperintense sign (bright spot).  

THERAPY:Expansive processes in the region of the hypophysis are treated by surgery or irradiation, mostly using the gamma knife.  

Knowledge of hypophysis could hardly stagnate in a context of general progress in medical science as such. New knowledge in physiology, pathology and treatment of hypophysis diseases is vast and only some of it could be included in the article. Impulses coming to the hypophysis from the brain centres and the periphery need to be integrated. Are there stem cells in the hypophysis, too? It seems there are. Massive injuries such as multiple traumas, severe burns and shock states provoke a double-phase response of the hypophysis.  

After the symptoms normalized within a few days, she developed diabetes insipidus and gadolinium (Gd)-enhancement of the enlarged hypophysis and stalk was observed on cranial MRI.  

The underlying cause is hypothalamic-hypophysis-gonadal axis dysfunction in women with chronic kidney disease which usually results in high levels of prolactin and.ammenorrhea In women with end stage kidney disease requiring replacement therapy in fertile period conception is very rare.  

Growth hormone (GH) is a polypeptide secreted by somatotropic cells of the anterior part of the hypophysis.  

BACKGROUND: The goal of nonsecreting pituitary adenoma radiosurgery is to halt tumour growth and to maintain normal performance of the hypophysis and the functionally important structures around the sella. Fourteen patients had a normally functioning hypophysis, 48 patients had complete panhypopituitarism, while the rest retained partial functions of the normal hypophysis. Impairment of hypophysis function was observed in 2 patients.  

versicolor petroleum ether extracts (CVPE) on the adenohypophysis androgen receptor level in mature castrated male rats. The androgen receptor (AR) in adenohypophysis of mature castrated male rats was determined by the immunohistochemistry method and the level of serum testosterone (T) were determined by the radio-immunoassay after ig CVPE for 21 days. CONCLUSION: The results show that CVPE can increase the adenohypophysis androgen receptor and serum T level in mature castrated male rats. It is indicated that CVPE has the effects on the hypophysis function..  

It appears to contribute to risk for such malignancies in adults as breast, lung, liver, bladder, kidney, prostate, hypophysis cancer, ovarian carcinoma, skin melanoma, Hodgkin's disease, lymphoma, and probably stomach cancer.  

As a result of the search, it was established, that the impact of vibration on the organism of male rats causes important changes in the hypophysis-thyroid gland's endocrinal axis, particularly it takes place the hypofunction of thyroid gland.  

The objective of these experiments was to determine what regulates ovine placental progesterone and estradiol-17beta secretion at day-90 of pregnancy, since the hypophysis [ Casida LE, Warwick J.  

The phosphorylated form was also observed in the rat hypophysis.  

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (11)C-MET showed high blood uptake and a long retention in the tumor mass, therefore can be a valuable tracer for PET imaging of brain tumor and the hypophysis..  

Drugs which act on the dopaminergic system and/or on the dopamine hypophysis receptors, could increase the prolactin levels.  

We report 2 such cases of partial duplication of the hypophysis and briefly review the literature..  

Expression of mRNA for pthrp and pth1r was quantified in gills and hypophysis. Expression of pthrp and pth1r mRNA was down-regulated in the hypophysis of D-fish, whereas in gill tissue, pthrp and pth1r mRNA were up-regulated.  

Because of the complex anatomy, examination of the sella turcica and hypophysis needs a dedicated MR sequence protocol.  

Sample preparation included a homogenization of the rat tissues (liver, brain, hypophysis) in a phosphate buffer 0.05 mol/L pH 7.4.  

An MRI of hypophysis and cranium yielded a shift of hypophysis and a large arachnoid cyst..  

That hypophysis has close relation with internal carotid artery during expending transsphenoidal approach to cavernous sinus increase the risk of operation.  

It also accelerates LH and FSH secretion in hypophysis.  

At micro- and macroadenomas of hypophysis, dostinex proved most effective and highly durable.  

Autopsy revealed that large B-cell lymphoma occupied the cavernous sinuses and made a mass involving sella turcica, left sphenoid bone, hypophysis.  

beta-Adrenoceptors (beta-ARs) were measured in myocardium, lung, spleen, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, and hypophysis, glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the spleen and androgen receptors (AnRs) in the testis, by binding assay.  

Female rat castration leads to enhancement of FSH and LH activity of the hypophysis.  

Increased levels of antibodies to hypophysis, denaturated DNA, and myelin basic protein were detected most frequently.  

The case shows that somatic or psychiatric symptoms can appear many years after destruction of the hypophysis, and emphasises how important it is to conduct a physical examination and to trace a patient's medical history as far back as possible..  

Consequently amount of ammonia is increased and optimal range of sympathetic system is changed; the impact on adrenal glands leads to the pathology of hypothalamus-hypophysis system - hyperprolactinemia, hyperinsulinemia, excitement of centre of hunger, obesity.  

The early (intrauterine and neonatal) life environment plays an important role in programming the susceptibility in later life to chronic degenerative diseases, such as obesity, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, cancer and osteoporosis.Among other hormones, leptin plays a major role in the regulation of the overall metabolism and has multiple neuroendocrine (adeno- and neuro-hypophysis axes and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis) and immune functions.The hormone exerts its actions beginning in the early life time period, regulating the intrauterine and early extrauterine life growth and development, as well as the adaptation to extrauterine life, neonatal thermogenesis and response to stress.  

The present results demonstrated that both boar sex pheromones, androstenone and androstenol, may contribute to the regulation of their humoral pathway from the nasal cavity to the brain and hypophysis in the ovariectomized pubertal gilts and suggest the effect of estradiol to this pathway..  

The method can be also applied for making an anatomic preparation of the brain and hypophysis in teaching anatomy..  

METHODS: We investigated activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in brain areas (frontal cortex, basal ganglia, septum and hippocampus) and the hypophysis, and that of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) in plasma and liver. RESULTS: Following administration of the highest of the GAL doses used (2.5; 5; 10 mg/kg i.m.), AChE activity decreased mainly in the frontal cortex, hippocampus and hypophysis.  

Changes of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in the hypophysis and brain (frontal cortex, hippocampus, medial septum and basal ganglia), and butyrylcholinesterase in plasma and liver following galanthamine (GAL) administration were studied in rats pretreated with L-carnitine (CAR).  

Moreover, higher parafibromin expression was found in cell types, such as hepatocytes, cells of the base of gastric glands, renal cortex tubules and the pars intermedia of the hypophysis, which are characterized by different proliferative capacity, thus indicating that the cellular function of parafibromin may not be reduced only to its anti-proliferative effect..  

Glucose homeostasis depends on primary glucoregulatory organs--pancreas, liver, adrenal glands, and hypophysis.  

47 (aged from 17 to 30) women have been selected after the assay with exogenous estradiol, which proved the intactness of the mechanism of the negative feedback between ovaries and hypophysis. The impulse secretion of gonadotropins (had been studied in ten women) evidenced a normal secretion rhythm of gonadotropin releasing hormone by hypothalamus, while the assay with exogenous luliberin showed normal reactivity of gonadotrophs of the hypophysis to hypothalamic stimulation..  

Somatostatin receptor analogue is applied to the hypothalamus-hypophysis system, analogue medium to is used, in thyroid diagnostics, besides the determined tumour markers, tenchecium-labelled MIBI radioiodine 131 is used to determine and monitor carcinomas.  

The alteration after the training programme seems to be due to the subjects' hypothalamic-hypophysis-testicular and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes adaptations, which enable them to increase physical strength..  

Coming back to hormonal regulations, other than the well-known regulation by neuro-hypophysis peptides, a steroid second messenger, progesterone, has been recently proposed [ P.  

Major objectives in forensic gerontology are physical and mental disorders during aging, which can be caused by various factors involving nutrition and stress, often accompanied by dysfunction in the neuroendocrine systems including the hypophysis. The objective of the present study was to investigate the histopathological changes in the adenohypophysis in elderly subjects using autopsy materials. Incidence of the scaphoid-shaped hypophysis mildly increased with age, being 17% in the elderly over 65 years of age.  

Levels of DA in retina, hypophysis and striatum were decreased after styrene exposure, the activities of MAO in hypophysis were increased and were reduced in retina and striatum.  

A histological study of arteries and veins in the presence of suppuration in shunt sepsis in a patient on programmed hemodyalisis and unsuccessful triple renal allotransplantation revealed bacterial endocarditis, as well as Candida-induced endophlebitis of cubital veins and disseminated chromoboblastomycosis with the involvement of lymph nodes, adrenals, and hypophysis..  

The goal of the research was the investigation of the hypophysis-adrenal gland system during the vibration and possible methods of its correction. According to the experimental data vibration leads to the activation of hypophysis-adrenal gland system.  

Marshall, began the experimental studies in order to demonstrate a vascular connection between the hypothalamus and the adenohypophysis, with neuropeptides as messengers. This confirmed his theory that the mechanism consists in that the nerve fibers in the hypothalamus release hormonal substances in the capillaries of the primary plex in the medium eminence, and that these substances are carried by the vessels of the portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit the pars distalis cells of the hypophysis. This theory placed the hypothalamus as the fundamental structure to understand the link between the brain and the hypophysis.  

The hypophysis showed evidence of significant damage with morphologic changes such as edema, hemorrhages, and focal necrosis in association with reduced TSH levels..  

A method is described that permits the measurement of the levels of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in human liver, kidney, adipose tissue, brain, basal ganglia, hypophysis, thyroid, gonads, pancreas, lung, skeletal muscle and blood, even in subjects not occupationally exposed to these compounds.  

This examination revealed that amyloid deposits were also present in the hypophysis, ovary, uterus, mammary gland and skeletal muscle, in addition to the liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas, thyroid gland, adrenal gland, gastrointestinal mucosa, heart, lung and lymph nodes.  

There was a decrease in the percentage of BrdU labeled cells in the absence of hypophysis at 9 and 13 days of incubation.  

The outer layer of the median eminence displayed numerous fibers located close to the portal system, while scarce fibers were seen in the inner median eminence and neural lobe of the hypophysis.  

We used four complementary techniques to investigate the presence of oxytocin peptide in the hypophysis and brain of the snake Bothrops jararaca. A high-pressure liquid chromatographic analysis failed to show oxytocin in extracts of hypophysial and brain tissues but provided estimative values of the amounts of vasotocin (12 ng/mg hypophysis and 0.5 ng/mg brain) and mesotocin (500 pg/mg hypophysis and 8 pg/mg brain). Immunohistochemistry with the same anti-oxytocin antibody detected strong staining in the neurohypophysis and in few fibers in the inner zone of the median eminence, which was not abolished by pre-adsorption of this antibody with oxytocin, vasopressin, vasotocin or mesotocin and might not be attributed to oxytocin.  

Adenomas of the hypophysis are tumors of the CNS which are on the third place in the frequency of appearance, which cause disturbances of hypophyseal function. The MRI examination of the hypophysis proved a hypophyseal adenoma.  

The new transcript, rQSOX-L (3356 nucleotides), was specifically expressed in brain, hypophysis, heart, testis and seminal vesicle.  

The present review is aimed at suggesting a number of endocrine and behavioural endpoints to be used in experimental studies to: (i) characterize more thoroughly the functional effects of developmental exposure to agents known to act as endocrine disruptors and (ii) unmask possible interferences with the maturation of the hypothalamus-hypophysis-gonad/thyroid (HHG/Th) axis by different class of xenobiotics not considered as EDCs.  

Of the patients with abnormal MRI findings, 57% had a microadenoma, and 43% had either an atrophic anterior lobe or a prominent hypophysis.  

In addition, at 30 min intense FG labeling was found in the hypophysis, while limited periventricular penetration of FG was detected in the hindbrain circumventricular areas.  

Lowering of somatotropic hormone level in patients with metabolic syndrome is associated with disturbed somatotropic function of the hypophysis which regulates blood pressure..  

Undernutrition strongly contributed to organ weight except for the hypophysis, and was especially apparent in the heart and liver.  

Weight and dimensions of the pituitary (hypophysis cerebri) obtained from medicolegal autopsies of northwestern Indian subjects, which included 87 children and adolescents and 798 adults were recorded.  

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a lobular, strong hypointense lesion with spotty signal in the middle of the hypophysis.  

The aim of this study was to ascertain whether the clinical picture in 4 subjects with APA and multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies (MPHD) was different compared to the one observed in a selected control group consisting of 7 MPHD individuals with hypoplastic (and not aplastic) adenohypophysis and pituitary stalk interruption syndrome. Another goal was to investigate genetic basis of APA by analyzing for the first time in this condition many of the transcriptional factors which are required for both structural development and cellular differentiation of hypophysis. Conclusions: a) if compared with a selected cohort of MPHD patients with both adenohypophysis hypoplasia and pituitary stalk interruption syndrome, the ones with APA show an earlier and more severe picture of hypopituitarism; b) mutations in several transcription factors that are known to be essential for the development of Rathke's pouch are not necessarily found in humans with APA..  

Weight and dimensions of the pituitary (hypophysis cerebri) obtained from medicolegal autopsies of northwestern Indian subjects, which included 87 children and adolescents and 798 adults were recorded.  

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of pretreatment with CAR on AChE inhibition caused by GAL in selected brain parts in rat (basal ganglia, septum, frontal cortex, hippocampus) and in hypophysis, which does not lay beyond the blood-brain-barrier. The highest degree of AChE dose dependent inhibition was observed in hypophysis, while that in CNS was lower and became apparent in frontal cortex and hippocampus only after the administration of the dose of 10 mg/kg i.m. Comparing these results with control group, statistical significance was found in frontal cortex, hippocampus and hypophysis..  

Changes in chicken embryo thymus after partial decerebration (including the hypophysis) and hypophyseal allograft were investigated. These findings confirmed the key role of hypophysis in thymic ontogenic development and provided new information in metabolic enzymatic pathways and synthesis of a thymostimulin-like substance in the thymus..  

His ingenious medical career began with the histological study of the developing pigeon and chick hypophysis, and culminated with bold propositions about the neuroanatomy of talent and the future evolution of the human brain.  

In contrast, immunolabelled fibres were not observed in the pituitary stalk or in the hypophysis.  

Adenocytes consolidation in the structure of "pharyngeal hypophysis" is considered as additional part of the anterior hypophysis. The structure of the mucous membrane in the region of pharyngeal hypophysis is described.  

The aim of the present work was to investigate whether nestin, a member of the intermediate filament family, is immunohistochemically expressed in the non-tumoral human hypophysis and pituitary neoplasms.  

The levels of gene and protein expressions of GnRH, growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SS) in hypothalamus, and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and growth hormone (GH) in adenohypophysis as well as insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in metaphysis were determined with real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The GH mRNA in hypophysis and the IGF-I mRNA in metaphysis were both down-regulated by ZYXHR. The YSTJR could promote the activity of GnRH neurons in hypothalamus through inhibiting the release of NPY in gonadotrophic area of hypothalamus, up-regulating the expression levels of GnRH, FSH, LH and GH mRNAs in hypophysis, and IGF-I mRNA in metaphysis, while down-regulating the expression level of SS mRNA in hypothalamus. CONCLUSION: The ZYXHR and YSTJR could both regulate the gonadotrophic and somatotrophic functions of hypothalamic-pituitary axis through modulating the neuroendocrine regulation and the gene expressions of GnRH and SS in hypothalamus, GH, FSH and LH in hypophysis, and IGF-I in metaphysis.  

INTRODUCTION: There is a relationship between sarcoidosis and endocrine diseases: hypothalamus, hypophysis, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal gland and calcium metabolism disorder. Diseases of adenohypophysis present with gonadotropic insufficiency and prolactin increase. Disorders of neurohypophysis manifest with moderate polyuria and polydipsia.  

The first NPFFir cells appeared in the embryonic hypothalamus, which projected to the intermediate lobe of the hypophysis, the brainstem and spinal cord.  

In this paper we collected the most significant data about leptin's physiology and its role in body energetic homeostasis, looking also to the effects on hypothalamus-hypophysis-endocrine axes regulation, on body thermoregulation, on the reproductive function and on foetus and child growth.  

Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an enlargement of the hypophysis and bilateral cavernous sinuses, particularly on the right side. Radiological examination revealed an enlargement of the hypophysis whereas the right C4 aneurysm had decreased in size and no blood flow was apparent in the ipsilateral ophthalmic artery.  

We investigated COMT activities in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, brain stem, hypophysis, and hypothalamus of SHR and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats.  

The Arabidopsis embryonic root meristem is initiated by the specification of a single cell, the hypophysis. We show that these proteins interact and transiently act in a small subdomain of the proembryo adjacent to the future hypophysis. Here they promote transport of auxin, which then elicits a second response in the hypophysis itself. Our results suggest that hypophysis specification is not the direct result of a primary auxin response but rather depends on cell-to-cell signaling triggered by auxin in adjacent cells..  

At the origin of the phenomena is an intense response by the hypophysis, histologically detectable 1 hr from the onset of treatment and confirmed 2 hr later by a highly significant increase in the plasma thyroidstimulating hormone (TSH) concentration compared with the controls (41.5 +/- 13.7 microU/L vs.  

Studies of immune and hormonal state in patients with vibration disease caused by general and local vibration helped to evaluate pathogenetic role of immune reactivity disorders in mechanisms underlying relations between hypothalamus-hypophysis-adrenals and thyroid systems, to specify principal scheme of interactions between neuroendocrine and immune systems in such disorders..  

With the application of MRI, however, these data are of limited use in the diagnosis of pituitary disorders, although they remain valuable with regard to a microsurgical approach to the hypophysis.  

However, distinct particular features were present in the gymnophionan such as the lack of NPFF-ir cells in the telencephalon, brainstem and spinal cord and the absence of NPFF-ir fibers in the hypophysis and the olfactory bulbs.  

RESULTS: Nervous elements and adenohypophyseal tissue were histologically identified in the large excrescence, but were separate from adenohypophyseal tissue of the pharyngeal hypophysis. CONCLUSIONS: The large tissue mass found in the nasopharynx is histologically identical to a sellar hypophyseal gland, but differed from the adjacent pharyngeal hypophysis in histological composition.  

Disease produced by gram = negative bacteria is a type of the bacterial (endotoxin) shock and a main morphological criterion of an infection generalization is development of DBC-syndrome with necrosis and hemorrhages in the hypophysis-adrenal system.  

OBJECTIVE: Descriptive studies in our country of hypophysis diseases are uncommon. Pituitary adenomas are derived of adenohypophysis cells, depending of cellular line, clinical and biochemical characteristics are different. CONCLUSIONS: Prolactinoma is the most frequent hypophysis pathology.  

Postmortem examination revealed brain atrophy due to a diffuse encephalopathy, numerous calcified neurons in cerebral cortex, deep telencephalic and diencephalic nuclei, diffuse neuronal necrosis in hypothalamic nuclei, moderate atrophy of optic nerves, very thin hypophyseal stalk, and empty sella with the hypophysis compressed to the dorsal aspect of the concavity.  

This change involves the heterotopic shift of tissue interaction, which appears to have been preceded by the transition from monorhiny to diplorhiny, as well as separation of the hypophysis.  

The immense history leading to our current understanding and treatment of pituitary pathology is inextricably linked to the evolution of the understanding of the numerous functions of the hypophysis cerebri as the "master gland" of the endocrine system.  

Labelled fibers ran along the diencephalic floor and the inner zone of the median eminence, and ended in the neural lobe of the hypophysis.  

The hypophysis is embedded in the fossa at the base of skull, having important functions in the hormonal system. These findings suggest the usefulness of immunohistochemical investigation of the adenohypophysis for estimating the time of death and endocrinologic evaluation in decomposed cadavers..  

The results also show that, at the time of hypophysis specification, the symplastic connectivity between suspensor and embryo is reduced or interrupted and that the embryo develops from a single symplast (globular and heart stage) to a mature embryo with new symplastic domains..  

Interestingly, it has been observed that the activation of the sympathetic system could play an important role in the pathogenesis of bovine ovarian cysts as suggested by the modifications in beta-AR levels in the hypophysis and ovary of cows affected by ovarian cysts.  

It indicated that CVPEE had the effects by the hypothalamus-hypophysis-gonad axial function..  

The blurred vision was caused by inflammation, but not compression, of the optic nerves due to the pituitary abscess outside the hypophysis..  

The hormonal level dynamics of hypophysis, thyroid gland and sex steroids was analyzed in respect to the puberty. The amplitude of hypophysis and thyroid hormones were narrowed whereas the range of sex steroids was extended during the puberty. In early stages of puberty, the interhormonal correlations existed on some levels (hypophysis or peripheral gland), but in late stage the intersystem and polyhormonal relations were formed.  

At necropsy of both experiments, the thyroid glands and hypophysis were collected and fixed with 10% neutral-buffered formalin. To avoid crushing during weighing because of their fragility, the thyroid glands and hypophysis were weighed approximately 24 h after fixation with 10% neutral-buffered formalin.  

During organogenesis, SC disappears from the cells of organs that lose their exocrine Ig-secretion function, such as the hypophysis, pancreatic islands and adrenal glands.  

Influence of stress on immunity and pathogenesis relates to corticotropic axis: hypothalamus-hypophysis-surrenals (HHS).  

Patients not recovering after six months were given tamoxifen 20 mg/24-hour, if having a normal or inhibited hypothalamus-hypophysis axis.  

Pituitary stalk transection is characterized on magnetic resonance imaging by the absence of pituitary stalk visibility, hypoplasia of the anterior hypophysis and ectopic posterior pituitary hyperintense signal.  

RECENT FINDINGS: Estrogen appears to regulate cyclic gonadotropin release via its action on estrogen receptor alpha in the hypothalamus/hypophysis axis and to enhance folliculogenesis through its actions via estrogen receptor beta in the ovary.  

Numerous GAL-ir fibers were observed in the median eminence and neural lobe of the hypophysis, indicating that galanin may play a role in the modulation of hypophyseal secretion.  

There have been performed morphometric and immunohistochemical examinations of adenohypophysis of 15 females who died of massive post-partum hemorrhages. Massive obstetric bleeding causes severe complications-posthemorrhagic shock, the pathogenetic mechanism of which includes necrosis of the cells in the anterior part of the hypophysis. Cause-effect relations were shown for the amount of the post-partum blood loss and the revealed pathomorphologic changes in the hypophysis. Hyperproduction of ACTH by the basophilic cells of the adenohypophysis revealed by immunohistochemical analysis is a compensatory mechanism under the conditions of acute adrenal insufficiency inherent in any shock including posthemorrhagic..  

This study was designed to determine whether steroid sex pheromones of the boar may affect the contractile activity of the superficial venous vessels of the nose and face in gilts, and in this way contribute to recently discovered humoral transfer of pheromones to the brain and hypophysis. The results obtained suggest a direct effect of male pheromones on the contractile reactivity of the superficial veins of the nose and face in the female, and in this way contribute to a humoral pathway for transfer of pheromones to the brain and hypophysis.  

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two anatomical sites of interest in 3D-CRT were studied: prostate and hypophysis chordoma. In the same way, NTCP of brain stem in hypophysis chordoma treatments was doubled when this detector was used.  

Intact appearence of hypophysis in patients with IHH was significantly lower than in randomly selected healthy male subjects (p = 0.021). Mean infundibulum width of hypophysis and transverse diameter of posterior hypophysis were significantly broader in patients with IHH than in controls (both having p < 0.001), while mean hypophysis height and volume did not differ between groups.  

Pharmaceutical and molecular biological research has shown their influence on several crucial organs (or cell cultures thereof) of humans and animals (brain and spinal cord, cerebellum, hippocampus, hypophysis, pancreas, adrenal glands, salivary glands and others).  

RIA results were significantly higher in the hypophysis of WARs when compared to R rats, at 3 min.  

Changes in the total number of somatic and germ cells further suggest that the absence of hypophysis affects the growth of the ovary earlier than the growth of the testis. The adenohypophysis regulates, probably through gonadotropic hormones, proliferation of somatic and germ cells in the gonads during chick embryo development..  

Activity was high in the epiphysis, hypophysis and olfactory rosette throughout the study.  

It is also produced in pancreas, kidney, placental tissue, thyroid gland, hypothalamus, and hypophysis.  

A hand-drawn region of interest was placed around each hypophysis cerebri and time attenuation curves were generated. The specific enhancement pattern of the hypophysis cerebri for each cat was recorded. The mean width and height of the hypophysis cerebri was 5.2 +/- 0.4 (average +/- SD) mm and 3.1 +/- 0.3 mm, respectively. Four cats had initial dorsal and peripheral contrast enhancement patterns of the hypophysis cerebri, while four cats had an initial central contrast medium enhancement pattern. The hypophysis cerebri had a homogenous appearance in all cats, 28-50 s after contrast medium injection. Normal hypophysis cerebri mensuration and contrast medium enhancement characteristics will help in clinical evaluation of the feline hypophysis cerebri..  

These observations showed that diffuse lesions of brain tissues of different severities were accompanied by the following changes in thyroid homeostasis: 1) significant combined increases in TSH without alteration to the "fT3-TSH" negative feedback regulatory mechanism in patients with stage I DE; 2) significant combined decreases in TSH levels with marked suppression of the conversion of thyroxine into triiodothyronine and an interaction with impairments in the "fT3-hypophysis" system in patients with stage II DE.  

There are two types of GnRHa administration that can be used to lead to hypophysis desensitization in the IVF cycle in the long protocol: one consisting of daily GnRHa low doses, and another with the administration of analogues in higher long-acting doses (depot).  

In secondary hypogonadism, LH secretion (and usually also FSH) from the hypophysis is impaired so that Leydig's cells are not stimulated, while in tertiary hypogonadism the hypothalamus is damaged.  

Two clinical observations in 1912 suggested an association between the hypophysis and diabetes insipidus.  

Vasopressin and oxytocin are synthesised in the hypothalamus and released to the blood stream via the posterior lobe of the hypophysis. This vasopressin receptor is different from the vasopressin V1b receptor of the anterior lobe of the hypophysis, which is important in mood changes and V2 receptor of the kidneys mediating fluid reabsorption.  

The laboratory rats exposed to one-time external ionizing radiation have been found to have phase changes of morphofunctional and secretory cells activity of hypothalamus, hypophysis, cortex and medullary of adrenal glands. The first phase called reactive (3-7 days) is characterized by enhancing energy-producing, protein-synthesizing and secretory functions of secretory sells of hypothalamus supraoptic nucleus, corticotrophic cells of adenohypophysis, adrenocorticytes of cortex and adrenocytes of medullary of adrenal glands. The fourth phase (1-3 months) is characterized by virtually complete recovery of morphofunctional and secretory activity of most cells of hypothalamus, hypophysis and adrenal glands..  

The EC(50) of GnRH was 51 +/- 16 pg/mL, the EC(50) being the GnRH plasma concentration able to produce 50% of the maximum possible stimulation (S(max)) of the hypophysis (S(max) = 48 +/- 13).  

Adaptation to stress also resulted in an increase in beta-endorphinl-31 in blood plasma, the hypophysis, hypothalamus and midbrain.  

We also found a specific pattern for each subunit; alpha7 and alpha4 associated exclusively to the epidermal glands and hypophysis, respectively; this is probably due to alternative roles that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors play in regulating physiological functions of non-neuronal amphibian tissues, rather than as mere neurotransmitters in the nervous system..  

In this research psychic and somatic symptoms related to disturbances of hypothalamus-hypophysis-peripheral regulation which may occur in the schizophrenic process were analysed.  

The authors present a test for a prognosis of height in children with somatotropic hypofunction of the hypophysis treated with growth hormone.  

Serum LH concentrations are elevated in the sense of counterregulation (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).In secondary hypogonadism, LH secretion (and usually also FSH) from the hypophysis is impaired so that Leydig's cells are not stimulated, while in tertiary hypogonadism the hypothalamus is damaged.  

CONCLUSIONS: The main repercussion of craniopharyngioma, due to its proximity to hypothalamus and hypophysis, is on the endocrine and reproductive areas of human being..  

The immunohistochemical avidin-biotin complex method was used to study hormone-producing cells in the adenohypophysis of the skink Chalcides chalcides during embryonic development. At stage 32, the hypophysis had developed to a great extent though it was not yet elongated in a cephalic-caudal direction. In embryos close to birth (stages 39-40), the hypophysis and the adenohypophysial cells were already similar to those of the adult animal..  

The objective of the study was to determine whether luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) can access the brain by way of transfer from the venous blood of the cavernous sinus to the arterial blood supplying the brain and hypophysis.  

In extraneural sites, amyloid was more conspicuous in thyroid and kidney from early-onset cases and in heart and hypophysis from late-onset cases.  

Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) were used for the analysis of new synthetic derivatives of hypophysis neurohormones--vasopressin and oxytocin, and pancreatic hormone--human insulin (HI) and its octapeptide fragment, derivatized by fluorescent probe, 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo[ 1,2,5]oxadiazol (NBD).  

hypophysis--thyroid dysregulation in children with minimal brain dysfunction associated with gestosis in their mothers during pregnancy, was manifested by decreased content of total and free T4 and T3 in blood serum and increased level of the thyroid-stimulating hormone..  

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 1 syndrome or Wermer syndrome is a classical malignant neoplasia syndrome, inherited in the autosomal dominant pattern, when hyperplastic and/or neoplastic injury develops synchronously or metachronously in the cells of the parathyroid gland, pancreas islets, hypophysis, and rarer in other neuroendocrine organs.  

It is possible that, with the increasing complexity of metozoa, GnRH neurons have lost their direct connection with the gonad to specialize in the control of additional regulatory centers such as the hypophysis in vertebrates or the optic gland in cephalopods.  

Whereas the telencephalon was not developed according to the stage, the development of the hypophysis had occurred prior to stage 15.  

AVP but not its mRNA levels were significantly lower in the hypothalamus and hypophysis of TGR(ASrAOGEN) rats.  

Neither lungs nor hypophysis were involved.  

Clusters of anti-S-100 protein-positive cells were clearly observed in a region of the hypophysis tentatively named the transition zone.  

The three-dimensional architecture of collagen fibrils in the connective tissue framework and the distribution of collagen types in the goat hypophysis were studied by the cell maceration method in combination with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and immunohistochemistry. The pars distalis of the adenohypophysis consisted of many cell clusters. The collagen framework in the pars intermedia was mainly divided into three parts, the dorsal region with large hollows, the middle region, and the ventral sheet facing the cavum hypophysis. In the lobus nervosus of the neurohypophysis, the collagen network exhibited a sponge-like appearance at low magnification. Immunohistochemistry revealed types I, III, IV, V, and VI collagen throughout the hypophysis. It is concluded that to maintain structural and functional integration, the components of collagen are in different configurations throughout the regions of the goat hypophysis..  

In this review the manifestations of disorders of the hypophysis, the thyroid, the parathyroid, the cortex and of diabetes mellitus at peripheral joints, the vertebral column, muscles, bones, and, as far as important for the rheumatologist, the peripheral nerve system are summarized.  

The disease hypothalamus/hypophysis can also be responsible for the post-partum thyroid dysfunction, even though it is extremely rare. The auto-immunity of hypophysis plus Sheehan syndrome are two main reasons for hypothyroidism, associated with other hypophysis hormones production deficit..  

Lower receptor mRNA expression was found in the hypophysis, whereas the lowest expression was observed in the ovary.  

The diagnosis of somatotropic pituitary insufficiency (SPI) was based on insulin and clonidin stimulation tests evaluating GH reserve of hypophysis.  

Both oxytocin and arginine vasopressin immunoreactivity was present in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, median eminence, neural lobe of the hypophysis and the pineal gland.  

Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a normal morphology of the adenohypophysis and total absence of the neurohypophysis. These results, incompatible with a diagnosis of Sheehan's syndrome and lymphocytic infundibulo-neurohypophysis, excluded all the other known causes of acquired CDI. Thus, it is possible that in the puerperal period other diseases of the posterior hypophysis may develop, of unknown etiopathogenesis but equally responsible for CDI..  

We identified neoplasms of the breast, lung, urinary bladder, hypophysis, ovary, prostate, liver, Hodgkin's disease, lymphoma and, possibly, gastric cancer as GMF-dependent.  

The frequency of encephalic infarction was 17.5%, corresponding to 92 events in 92 individuals, 82 (15.8%) of which involved the brain, 8 (1.5%) involved the cerebellum, and 2 (0.4%) involved the hypophysis.  

In the present study we examined whether local transfer of intranasally administrated tritiated progesterone (3H-P4) would increase its concentration in blood supplying the brain and hypophysis in comparison with other organs.  

It is located in the cavernous and intercavernous sinuses, caudal to the hypophysis.  

Frequent coincidence of a morphological type of the primary and additional tumors (70%), degree of cell differentiation (80%) and higher incidence of multifocality in infiltrative growth of the primary tumor support the existing hypophysis about the role of intra-organ metastasizing as the underlying cause of multifocal lesions.  

For a long time, oxytocin was regarded as a pregnancy hormone released by the hypophysis to stimulate labour and milk ejection.  

By using various blood indices, we evaluated effects on thyroid, hypophysis, and gonad function, as well as effects on glucose metabolism.  

Impairments in functional androgen metabolism in the hypothalamus were seen, with decreases in the Luliberin sensitivity of the hypophysis, changes in the structure of estral cycles, and morphological changes in the ovaries; these findings are evidence for neuroendocrine disturbances in the control of ovulation.  

CONCLUSIONS: The spermatogenic and strengthening yang action of BX capsule could be attributed to the improvement of the actions of the axis of lower thalamus-hypophysis-sexual gland and the axis of lower thalamus-hypophysis-adrenal cortex..  

In macroadenomas of the hypophysis, contrast-enhanced 3 T MRI was superior to standard MRI in the diagnosis of cavernous sinus infiltration and in visualization of cranial nerves within the cavernous sinus. In summary, administration of gadolinium-based contrast agent produces higher contrast between tumor and normal brain at 3 T than at 1.5 T, helps to detect more cerebral metastases at 3 T versus 1.5 T in single and cumulative triple dose, improves the evaluation of macroadenomas of the hypophysis, and makes MR venography at 3 T clinically attractive with increase in spatial resolution within the same measurement time, thus providing more detailed information..  

To date, the age-related factors responsible for these modifications are unknown.The neural lobe of the hypophysis (NL) is a particular brain region which does not contain neurons but does contain specialized astrocytes, called pituicytes, and numerous terminals of afferent axons, including (i) peptidergic neurohypophysial axons which terminate on the NL blood vessels, and (ii) axons containing both gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA) and dopamine (DA) which form contacts with pituicytes.  

Potency of the effect was higher in hypophysis and hypothalamus than in other brain regions.  

Growth-promoting macroglia (aldynoglia) with growth properties and immunological markers similar to Schwann cells, are found in loci of the mammalian CNS where axon regeneration occurs throughout life, like the olfactory sytem, hypothalamus-hypophysis and the pineal gland.  

In 7 patients the metastatic process concerned also other organs: bones, liver, lungs, hypophysis, and lymphatic glands.  

The present study demonstrates that: (1) activation of micro -opioid receptors by systemic administration of a highly selective agonist DAGO (100 microg/kg) results in a significant increase in the number of plaque- and rosette-forming cells in the spleen of CBA mice as well as Wistar rats on the 5th day following sheep red blood cells (5 x 10(8)) immunization, (2) the immunostimulatory effect of DAGO is mediated by central mechanisms including the hypothalamus-hypophysis complex; (3) the postsynaptic dopamine (DA) receptors of D2 type are involved in the DAGO-induced immunostimulation since the combined treatment of animals with haloperidol (2 mg/kg), a blocker of DA D2 receptors, and DAGO abolished this effect; (4) the nuclei caudatus and accumbens of the nigrostriatal and mesolimbic DAergic systems, respectively, are implicated in the immune response stimulation caused by DAGO..  

It is usually accepted that hypophysis originates from two ecotodermal primordiums that give rise to its two main parts. The transformation of initial primordiums into definitive hypophysis is regarded as a result of mutual inductive influences between hypothalamus and Rathke's pouch. Based upon the arguments that Spemann's organizer, prechordal mesoderm (PCM) and hypophysis are consecutive derivatives that replace each other during ontogeny, the author proposes that the two novel stages preceding the former starting point should be added to traditional scheme of pituitary development. Besides, according to new scheme the PCM (successor of Spemann's organizer) plays the main role in hypophysis development by active stimulation of morphogenesis in adjacent tissues. This leads to formation of Rathke's pouch and infundibulum, to their approaching each other, and to reprogrammin of Rathke's pouch ectoderm into hormonal cells of adenohypophysis.  

Gonadotropic activity of the hypophysis has been determined to change in a phase way--from its considerable increase to the norm.  

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